The scope of this concept article is to demonstrate through few selected examples taken from recent literature that heterogeneous catalysis is presently an essential tool to achieve a sustainable use of resources for energy, chemical, and material production and to preserve and rehabilitate our environment. Using heterogeneous catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals reduce the energy demand and minimize the formation of non-recyclable wastes by increasing the activity and selectivity of fossil and renewable resource conversion. It is now the essential tool for the treatment of pollutants in air and water. The efficiency of photocatalytic processes for the treatment of toxic compounds in air and water is also highlighted. The destruction of pollutants by mineral dust in the atmosphere demonstrates the major role that heterogeneous catalytic processes plays for global environmental preservation.