Fe-doped TiO2-supported photocatalytic materials prepared by the use of a mild ultrasound-assisted protocol have been found to possess excellent selectivities in glucose oxidation and total phenol mineralization. These materials were characterized by a number of techniques such as XRD, diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM with X-ray microanalysis, HRTEM, and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The proposed synthesis method was found to have a significant effect on textural properties, morphology, and visible-light responsiveness of nanophotocatalysts. The dopant agent was found to be in the form of Fe3+ ions. The effects of the textural properties, together with the Fe presence and the adsorption ability of the material (acidic properties), seem to be involved in the optimum photocatalytic activities found for Fe–TiO2 supported on zeolite. In phenol photodegradation, although Fe doping demonstrated the detrimental effect on the conversion rate, an improvement in the direct mineralization of phenol to CO2 and water, particularly for the SiO2-supported photocatalyst, with a negligible content of toxic byproducts in water has been observed in comparison with commercially available Evonik P25.