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Keywords:

  • chelates;
  • copper;
  • cross-coupling;
  • homogeneous catalysis;
  • green chemistry

Abstract

A series of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives were used as supporting ligands for copper-catalyzed Ullmann reaction in neat water. The catalytic system based on 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline has demonstrated the promising catalytic performances for aryl bromides. The catalytic system was applicable to a wide scope of substrates, high catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the reactions of electron-deficient, electron-rich, and heterocyclic aryl bromides with imidazoles containing different steric hindrance. The superior promoting effect of 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline is attributed to its water solubility under the basic conditions.