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Ethylene to 2-Butene in a Continuous Gas Phase Reaction using SILP-Type Cationic Nickel Catalysts

Authors

  • Dr. Judith Scholz,

    1. Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Veit Hager,

    1. Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Dr. Xinjiao Wang,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Inorganic Chemistry, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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  • Florian T. U. Kohler,

    1. Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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  • Michelle Sternberg,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Inorganic Chemistry, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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  • Dr. Marco Haumann,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
    • Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

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  • Dr. Normen Szesni,

    1. Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH, Waldheimer Straße 13, 83052 Bruckmühl (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Karsten Meyer,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Inorganic Chemistry, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Peter Wasserscheid

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
    • Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

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Abstract

Owing to shifting market demands, it is important to convert ethylene to propylene. One attractive way to achieve this conversion is the dimerization of ethylene to 1-butene, followed by isomerization to 2-butene and subsequent metathesis of 2-butene/ethylene olefin. Our contribution focuses on combining the first two steps. Herein, we report a highly selective tandem dimerization/isomerization of ethylene to 2-butene catalyzed by homogeneously dissolved cationic nickel complexes. These catalysts can be efficiently immobilized by using the supported ionic liquid phase technology. Such supported ionic liquid phase materials have been tested under continuous gas phase conditions and demonstrated attractive catalytic performance with respect to both catalyst stability and productivity after the optimization of support, ionic liquid, ligand, and process parameters. The limited thermal stability of the nickel complexes and olefin condensation at too low temperatures require a careful thermal management of the fixed-bed reactor.

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