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Recent Advances in the Stabilization of Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Reactions

Authors

  • Dr. Minna Cao,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, CAS, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, 155 Yangqiao West Road, Fuzhou Fujian 350002 (P. R. China), Fax: (+86) 591-83796710
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  • Dongshuang Wu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, CAS, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, 155 Yangqiao West Road, Fuzhou Fujian 350002 (P. R. China), Fax: (+86) 591-83796710
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  • Prof. Rong Cao

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, CAS, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, 155 Yangqiao West Road, Fuzhou Fujian 350002 (P. R. China), Fax: (+86) 591-83796710
    • State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, CAS, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Science, 155 Yangqiao West Road, Fuzhou Fujian 350002 (P. R. China), Fax: (+86) 591-83796710

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Abstract

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) feature high energy densities, low operating temperatures, and low environmental impact, which make them a promising technology for power applications. As a key component of PEMFCs, Pt-based catalysts are still under widespread investigation and have shown exciting performance; however, to move towards their successful commercialization, focusing solely on their catalytic activity is not sufficient. Instead, more effort is required to improve their stability and to decrease costs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of current research activities that have concentrated on how to stabilize the Pt-based catalysts. We devote the most attention to the structure-optimization of the Pt-based catalysts and the development of advanced supports. The feasible strategies for structure optimization are subdivided into three groups: 1) dimension effects; 2) electronic and bifunctional effects; and 3) steric effects. Then, we discuss the techniques that have been developed for improving carbon black and for generating various types of carbon-free supports and composites supports (e.g., graphite, carbon nanotubes, new-type oxides and nitrides, and macromolecules). An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area is also provided at the end of the review.

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