ChemCatChem

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 5

May 2014

Volume 6, Issue 5

Pages 1121–1480

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Rhodium-Complex-Linked Hybrid Biocatalyst: Stereo-Controlled Phenylacetylene Polymerization within an Engineered Protein Cavity (ChemCatChem 5/2014) (page 1121)

      Kazuki Fukumoto, Dr. Akira Onoda, Dr. Eiichi Mizohata, Dr. Marco Bocola, Prof. Dr. Tsuyoshi Inoue, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Schwaneberg and Prof. Dr. Takashi Hayashi

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201490027

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      Fancy a game of mutajenga? The cover picture represents the reengineering of a hybrid biocatalyst containg a rhodium complex within a β-barrel scaffold by computationally guided design and mutagesis as playing with building blocks to shape the circular wall. In their Full Paper on p. 1229 ff., K. Fukumoto et al. report how the hybrid biocatalyst with a covalently linked rhodium complex inside the cavity of nitrobindin promotes the polymerization of phenylacetylene. The appropriate structural optimization of the cavity by mutagenesis is found to provide polyphenylacetylene with a trans content of 82 % at 25 °C, pH 8.0. The X-ray crystal structure of the hybrid biocatalyst reveals that the rhodium complex is located in the -barrel cavity without any perturbation of the whole protein structure. The crystal structure and molecular modelling support the fact that the stereoselectivity is enhanced by effective control of monomer access to the rhodium complex within the limited space of the protein cavity.

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      Inside Cover: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Distribution on Oxygen Electroreduction Activity and Selectivity (ChemCatChem 5/2014) (page 1122)

      Dr. Emiliana Fabbri, Susan Taylor, Annett Rabis, Dr. Pieter Levecque, Dr. Olaf Conrad, Dr. Rüdiger Kötz and Prof. Thomas J. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201490028

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      Dispersion determines platinum activity and selectivity The cover picture shows the change in the Pt specific activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on increasing the electrochemical surface area (ECSA). As E. Fabbri et al. present in their Full Paper on p. 1410 ff., the transition from extended layers to dispersed nanoparticles leads to an increase in the ECSA but a decrease in the specific ORR activity. The data of specific activity versus the ECSA follow a "master curve" obtained by comparing normalized Pt activities from different studies. The transition from dispersed Pt nanoparticles to extended layers also influences the Pt selectivity. At increased interparticle distance, a significant increase in the H2O2 production is also observed, which indicates the important role of a H2O2 as an intermediate in the ORR reaction on Pt nanoparticles.

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      Inside Back Cover: Dinuclear Zinc–N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes for Either the Controlled Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide or the Controlled Degradation of Polylactide Under Mild Conditions (ChemCatChem 5/2014) (page 1481)

      Dr. Christophe Fliedel, Diogo Vila-Viçosa, Prof. Maria José Calhorda, Dr. Samuel Dagorne and Prof. Teresa Avilés

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201490032

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      Multipurpose zinc carbene catalyst The cover picture features a dinuclear zinc–N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyst. In their Full Paper on p. 1357 ff., S. Dagorne, T. Avilés, M. J. Calhorda et al. report that such zinc–NHC alkoxide species polymerize lactide to produce well-defined polylactic acid and, remarkably, also mediate the controlled degradation (depolymerization) of polylactic acid under mild conditions to produce methyl lactate as the major reaction product. DFT studies of the polymerization reaction highlight the beneficial effect of two zinc centers in close proximity. The work shows that biocompatible zinc(II) complexes can mediate the polymerization of lactide and the controlled degradation of polylactic acid under mild conditions (room temperature).

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      Back Cover: Characterization of a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Catalyst on Ensemble and Individual Particle Level by X-ray Micro- and Nanotomography, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence, and Micro-X-ray Diffraction (ChemCatChem 5/2014) (page 1482)

      Dr. Simon R. Bare, Meghan E. Charochak, Dr. Shelly D. Kelly, Dr. Barry Lai, Dr. Jun Wang and Dr. Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201490033

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      Many techniques, bigger picture The cover picture shows a combination of advanced characterization techniques: X-ray micro- and nanotomography and micro-X-ray fluorescence are used to characterize a commercial spent equilibrium fluid catalytic cracking catalyst at both the ensemble and individual particle level. In their Full Paper on p. 1427 ff., S. R. Bare et al. explain how the in-depth characterization study presents a robust methodology that provides an understanding of the equilibrium fluid catalytic cracking catalyst ECAT at both the micro- and nanometer scales.

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Rhodium-Complex-Linked Hybrid Biocatalyst: Stereo-Controlled Phenylacetylene Polymerization within an Engineered Protein Cavity (page 1123)

      Kazuki Fukumoto, Dr. Akira Onoda, Dr. Eiichi Mizohata, Dr. Marco Bocola, Prof. Dr. Tsuyoshi Inoue, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Schwaneberg and Prof. Dr. Takashi Hayashi

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201402206

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      “Our collaboration started after the launch of the Japanese–German Graduate Externship Program­ Selectivity in Chemo- and Biocatalysts.” This and more about the story behind the research featured on the front cover can be found in this issue's Cover Profile. Read the full text of the corresponding research at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201301055.

  3. Graphical Abstract

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    8. Minireview
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
  4. Masthead

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    5. Masthead
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    1. Masthead: ChemCatChem 5/2014 (page 1125)

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201490030

  5. News

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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
  6. Review

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    11. Full Papers
    1. Production of Macrocyclic Sesqui- and Diterpenes in Heterologous Microbial Hosts: A Systems Approach to Harness Nature’s Molecular Diversity (pages 1142–1165)

      Prof. Dr. Thomas Brück, Prof. Dr. Robert Kourist and Dr. Bernhard Loll

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300733

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      Celling it: Natural products macrocyclic sesqui- (C15) and diterpenes (C20) have anticancer, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties. To overcome the difficulties in synthesizing these complex structures, heterologous production in recombinant whole-cell biocatalysts is emerging. Metabolic, enzyme, and process engineering and systems biology have recently led to significant improvements towards economically viable processes. GGPPS=geranylgeranyl diphosphate.

  7. Minireview

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    1. Nanoporous Polymers: Bridging the Gap between Molecular and Solid Catalysts? (pages 1166–1182)

      Dr. Marcus Rose

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301071

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      Poring over polymers: Nanoporous polymers pose great potential for the future development of catalytic processes. They unite the advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous processing by providing solid organocatalysts, immobilized molecular metal species, and stabilized metal nanoparticles and clusters. Recent developments in these three main areas are summarized.

  8. Highlight

    1. Top of page
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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    11. Full Papers
    1. Organocatalytic β-Functionalization of Saturated Carbonyl Compounds—the State of the Art (pages 1183–1185)

      Liang Wang, Prof. Dr. Jian Xiao and Prof. Dr. Teck-Peng Loh

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400010

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      Get straight to the point! The elusive and direct organocatalytic β-functionalization of saturated carbonyl compounds has been tackled by oxidative enamine catalysis, oxidative NHC catalysis and merging of photoredox catalysis with organocatalysis. This new activation mode expanded the horizons of chemical synthesis and offers new insight for organic transformations and complex molecule synthesis.

  9. Communications

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    5. Masthead
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    1. Effect of CO2 on the DeNOx Activity of a Small Pore Zeolite Copper Catalyst for NH3/SCR (pages 1186–1189)

      Young Jin Kim, Kyung Myung Min, Jun Kyu Lee, Prof. Suk Bong Hong, Prof. Byong K. Cho and Prof. In-Sik Nam

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400093

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      Fort NOX: The activity of CuSSZ13 for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by NH3 at low temperatures below 300 °C gradually decreases in the presence of CO2. The formation of nitrate species is substantially inhibited by unidentate carbonate species that are formed on the catalyst surface. This is believed to be the primary cause for the CO2-induced deactivation of CuSSZ13. XNO=conversion of NO.

    2. An Efficient Oxygen Activation Route for Improved Ammonia Oxidation through an Oxygen-Permeable Catalytic Membrane (pages 1190–1194)

      Zhengwen Cao, Prof. Dr. Heqing Jiang, Dr. Huixia Luo, Dr. Stefan Baumann, Dr. Wilhelm A. Meulenberg, Dr. Hartwig Voss and Prof. Dr. Jürgen Caro

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400048

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      Got to get some activated oxygen through: By using an oxygen-permeable membrane, the activation of oxygen is separated from the catalytic oxidation, which suppresses the formation of nonselective surface molecular oxygen species that can cause low selectivity. A continuous flux of lattice oxygen through the membrane allows highly selective partial oxidation. As a result, the selectivity for NO in the oxidation of ammonia is improved.

    3. NaBr/DMSO-Induced Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran from Fructose or 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (pages 1195–1198)

      Dr. Caroline Laugel, Dr. Boris Estrine, Dr. Jean Le Bras, Dr. Norbert Hoffmann, Dr. Sinisa Marinkovic and Dr. Jacques Muzart

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400023

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      With a pinch of salt: The association of NaBr as a catalyst and DMSO as a solvent allows the synthesis of 2,5-diformylfuran from 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) or fructose in 75 or 50 % yield, respectively. This transformation occurs through the formation of 5-(bromomethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde followed by a Kornblum-type reaction.

    4. Microfluidic Hydrogenation Reactions by using a Channel-Supported Rhodium Catalyst (pages 1199–1203)

      Tom Haywood and Dr. Philip W. Miller

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301109

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      Chips away! A glass-fabricated microfluidic chip coated with a catalytically active layer of Rh effectively hydrogenates a range of alkenes at low hydrogen pressures (<0.2 MPa) and within short reaction times (2 min). Good to excellent conversions are achieved under these reaction conditions, including modest conversions of toluene into methylcyclohexane.

    5. One-Step Production of Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-doped Graphitic Carbon for Oxygen Reduction: Activation Effect of Oxidized Sulfur and Nitrogen (pages 1204–1209)

      Jing Wang, Dr. Zheng Xu, Yutong Gong, Chuanlong Han, Prof. Dr. Haoran Li and Prof. Dr. Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301102

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      Doping scandal: Oxidized sulfur and nitrogen co-doped graphitic carbon is one-step synthesized. This functional carbon material is an excellent metal-free electrode with conspicuous electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline electrolyte, and it shows stronger immunity to the crossover effect and superior long-term durability than commercial Pt/C (20 wt %).

    6. Visible-Light-Induced Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzylamine into Imine over Supported Ag/AgI Photocatalysts (pages 1210–1214)

      Prof. Zhanfeng Zheng, Chao Chen, Arixin Bo, Fathima Sifani Zavahir, Eric R. Waclawik, Jian Zhao, Dr. Dongjiang Yang and Prof. Huaiyong Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301030

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      Served on a silver platter: AgI nanoparticles have been dispersed on titanate nanotubes for the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzylamine to its corresponding imine. The photocatalyst system exhibits high conversion rate, selectivity, and stability over a wide visible range.

    7. Key Mechanistic Insight into the Direct Gas-Phase Epoxidation of Propylene by the RuO2–CuO–NaCl/SiO2 Catalyst (pages 1215–1219)

      Dr. Anusorn Seubsai, Bahman Zohour, Daniel Noon and Prof. Dr. Selim Senkan

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301009

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      Secret of catalytic synergy: On the basis of a critical finding ascertained from performance test results and characterization techniques, we propose a catalytic model and a mechanism for the direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide by O2 over a RuO2–CuO–NaCl/SiO2 catalyst that was previously discovered in our laboratories.

    8. Carbon Nanotube Growth on Nanozirconia under Strong Cathodic Polarization in Steam and Carbon Dioxide (pages 1220–1224)

      Youkun Tao, Dr. Sune D. Ebbesen, Dr. Wei Zhang and Prof. Dr. Mogens B. Mogensen

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300941

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      Zap it! This work describes nanozirconia acting as a catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water in a nickel–yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet under strong cathodic polarization. An electrocatalytic mechanism is proposed for the growth of the CNTs. equation image=Oxygen vacancy, equation image=occupied site of oxygen in zirconia.

    9. Rhodium Catalyzed ortho-Cyanation of Arylphosphates with N-cyano-N-phenyl-p-toluenesulfonamide (pages 1225–1228)

      Li-Jun Gu, Cheng Jin, Rui Wang and Hong-Yan Ding

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301076

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      A question of chelation: A rhodium-catalyzed cyanation of chelation assisted C[BOND]H bonds is described employing NCTS as an efficient cyanating reagent. The present method allowed the synthesis of various 2-cyanated arylphosphonate and related compounds in moderate to good yield.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Highlight
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Rhodium-Complex-Linked Hybrid Biocatalyst: Stereo-Controlled Phenylacetylene Polymerization within an Engineered Protein Cavity (pages 1229–1235)

      Kazuki Fukumoto, Dr. Akira Onoda, Dr. Eiichi Mizohata, Dr. Marco Bocola, Prof. Dr. Tsuyoshi Inoue, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Schwaneberg and Prof. Dr. Takashi Hayashi

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301055

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      Hybrid biocatalysis, β in a barrel: The incorporation of a Rh complex into the cavity of the nitrobindin β-barrel scaffold through a covalent linkage provides a hybrid catalyst that promotes the polymerization of phenylacetylene. The appropriate structural optimization of the cavity by mutagenesis enhances the trans content of the polymer. PPA=Polyphenylacetylene.

    2. Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanofibers and the Effect of Porosity, Electrical Conductivity, and Nitrogen Content on Their Oxygen Reduction Performance (pages 1236–1244)

      Dae-Soo Yang, Dr. Sudeshna Chaudhari, Prof. Kizhakke Palleeri Rajesh and Prof. Jong-Sung Yu

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400035

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      Limitless spinning: N-doped porous carbon nanofibers are prepared. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of these fibers is studied as a function of nitrogen content, porosity, and graphitic phase. The ORR performance reveals a trade-off between these parameters, and optimum values for these parameters have been found herein.

    3. Methane Coupling Reaction in an Oxy-Steam Stream through an OH Radical Pathway by using Supported Alkali Metal Catalysts (pages 1245–1251)

      Yin Liang, Zhikao Li, Mohamed Nourdine, Salman Shahid and Prof. Kazuhiro Takanabe

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400018

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      Make it methane: A universal reaction mechanism involved in the oxidative coupling of methane is demonstrated under oxy-stream conditions by using alkali-metal-based catalysts. Rigorous kinetic measurements indicated a reaction mechanism that is consistent with OH radical formation from an H2O–O2 reaction, followed by C[BOND]H activation in CH4 with an OH radical.

    4. Titanium(salen)-Catalysed Synthesis of Di- and Trithiocarbonates from Epoxides and Carbon Disulfide (pages 1252–1259)

      Christopher Beattie and Prof. Michael North

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201400005

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      Salen away on a kinetic sea: The combination of [Ti(salen)O]2 and tetrabutylammonium bromide or tributylamine catalyzes the addition of carbon disulfide to epoxides to form predominantly dithiocarbonates. Ten examples are reported that give the dithiocarbonates in 33–99 % isolated yield. A mechanistic study based on reaction kinetics, stereochemistry, and NMR spectra of reaction mixtures allow a catalytic cycle to be proposed.

    5. Platinum–Rhenium Synergy on Reducible Oxide Supports in Aqueous-Phase Glycerol Reforming (pages 1260–1269)

      Dr. Aysegul Ciftci, Seda Eren, Dr. D. A. J. Michel Ligthart and Prof. Emiel J. M. Hensen

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301096

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      Re as a promoter, TiO2 too: Pt supported on TiO2 exhibits the highest activity in aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol relative to Pt supported on CeO2, CeZrO2, ZrO2, and activated carbon. Re promotion increases the rates of C[BOND]O bond cleavage and water gas shift (WGS) reaction and is least pronounced for Pt/TiO2, as the titania support already promotes dehydration and WGS steps.

    6. Regioselective Enzymatic Halogenation of Substituted Tryptophan Derivatives using the FAD-Dependent Halogenase RebH (pages 1270–1276)

      Marcel Frese, Paulina H. Guzowska, Hauke Voß and Prof. Dr. Norbert Sewald

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301090

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      No business as usual: The tryptophan halogenase RebH from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes is able to halogenate at the electronically unfavored C7-meta-position of C5-substituted tryptophan derivatives, even in presence of deactivating ortho/para-directing groups.

    7. Mechanistic Aspects of Submol % Copper-Catalyzed C[BOND]N Cross-Coupling (pages 1277–1282)

      Per-Fredrik Larsson, Carl-Johan Wallentin and Per-Ola Norrby

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301088

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      A dash of copper: The submol % copper catalyzed C[BOND]N bond formation has been studied by kinetic and DFT methods. DMEDA acts as a facilitator for mass transfer, as well as a ligand. Oxidative addition leads to a CuIII intermediate undergoing facile reductive elimination.

    8. Tailoring the Cooperative Acid–Base Effects in Silica-Supported Amine Catalysts: Applications in the Continuous Gas-Phase Self-Condensation of n-Butanal (pages 1283–1290)

      Dr. Sankaranarayanapillai Shylesh, David Hanna, Joseph Gomes, Siddarth Krishna, Dr. Christian G. Canlas, Prof. Martin Head-Gordon and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301087

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      Secondary amines come first: A solid-base organocatalyst achieved by grafting amines onto silica surfaces is applied to the gas-phase aldol self-condensation of n-butanal to 2-ethylhexenal. Silica-supported secondary amine catalysts demonstrate a much higher catalytic activity than the primary amine analogues, owing to the respective formation of enamines as shown by in situ FTIR analysis. The reaction pathway is analyzed by DFT calculations.

    9. Role of the Base and Control of Selectivity in the Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction (pages 1291–1302)

      Dr. Carlos F. R. A. C. Lima, Ana S. M. C. Rodrigues, Dr. Vera L. M. Silva, Prof. Artur M. S. Silva and Prof. Luís M. N. B. F. Santos

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301080

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      Follow the organoborate road: Competition Suzuki–Miyaura reactions between two boronic acids with different pKa values reveal the link between acid–base chemistry and the reaction catalytic cycle. The results reveal that the borate path is the preferred route for transmetalation and thus confirm the role of the base in the reaction mechanism.

    10. Regiocontroled Palladium-Catalysed Direct Arylation at Carbon C2 of Benzofurans using Benzenesulfonyl Chlorides as the Coupling Partners (pages 1303–1309)

      Lenka Loukotova, Kedong Yuan and Dr. Henri Doucet

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301077

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      Low cost, high regioselectivity: The use of benzenesulfonyl chlorides as the coupling partner in the palladium-catalysed direct arylation of benzofurans allows for controlling the regioselectivity in favor of carbon C2. This method tolerates a variety of substituents on the benzenesulfonyl derivative.

    11. Ethylene Polymerization Catalyzed by Pyrene-Tagged Iron Complexes: The Positive Effect of π-Conjugation and Immobilization on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1310–1316)

      Liping Zhang, Dr. Wenjuan Zhang, Prof. Philippe Serp, Prof. Wen-Hua Sun and Dr. Jérôme Durand

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301063

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      Show your support for polymerization: Task-specific pyrene-tagged Fe complexes are highly active catalysts in ethylene polymerization. Their noncovalent immobilization onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes allows the design of supported catalytic systems that can be more active than the corresponding unsupported systems and/or allow a better control of the polyethylene polydispersity.

    12. Surface Treatment for Conductive 12 CaO⋅7 Al2O3 Electride Powder by Rapid Thermal Annealing Processing and Its Application to Ammonia Synthesis (pages 1317–1323)

      Dr. Fumitaka Hayashi, Prof. Masaaki Kitano, Dr. Toshiharu Yokoyama, Prof. Michikazu Hara and Prof. Hideo Hosono

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301061

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      Hot and fast! Rapid thermal annealing enables the surface reconstruction of the [Ca24Al28O64]4+(e)4 electride without fatal particle sintering, which allows smooth electron transfer to a N2 molecule adsorbed on Ru nanoparticles. The surface area achieved (9–19 m2 g−1) is ≈10 times greater than that of solid-state-synthesized [Ca24Al28O64]4+(e)4.

    13. Michael Addition of N-Unprotected 2-Oxindoles to Nitrostyrene Catalyzed by Bifunctional Tertiary Amines: Crucial Role of Dispersion Interactions (pages 1324–1332)

      Christoph Reiter, Sònia López-Molina, Bernhard Schmid, Dr. Christian Neiss, Prof. Dr. Andreas Görling and Prof. Dr. Svetlana B. Tsogoeva

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301052

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      The importance of being dispersed: Bifunctional thiourea- or sulfonamide-derived tertiary amines such as Takemoto′s catalyst catalyze the enantioselective nitro-Michael addition of N-unprotected 3-substituted 2-oxindoles to nitrostyrene in high yields and enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios. DFT calculations including van der Waals corrections are performed for the stereoisomers.

    14. Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Nitrogen-Functionalized Active Carbon: A Stable and Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Selective Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes (pages 1333–1339)

      Dr. Zelong Li, Dr. Jinlei Li, Dr. Jianhua Liu, Dr. Zelun Zhao, Prof. Dr. Chungu Xia and Prof. Dr. Fuwei Li

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301037

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      Be active, be fit! A facile method to prepare nitrogen-functionalized active carbon (NAC) has been described. The small-sized Pd nanoparticles are supported on NAC by using a postloading method. The representative catalyst Pd@NAC-800 demonstrated high activity and selectivity for the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes under mild reaction conditions.

    15. SiliaCat Diphenylphosphine Palladium(II) Catalyzed Borylation of Aryl Halides (pages 1340–1348)

      Valerica Pandarus, Olivier Marion, Geneviève Gingras, Dr. François Béland, Rosaria Ciriminna and Dr. Mario Pagliaro

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301035

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      Clean borylation for scale-up: With the easy access and broad availability of diverse borylated species, the Suzuki–Miyaura reaction has become routine in industry and in research labs. We report a new selective route for direct access to a diverse set of boronic acid pinacol esters over the sol–gel entrapped SiliaCat diphenylphosphine palladium(II) catalyst that can be easily scaled-up.

    16. Transfer Hydrogenation of Cellulose-based Oligomers over Carbon-supported Ruthenium Catalyst in a Fixed-bed Reactor (pages 1349–1356)

      Abhijit Shrotri, Dr. Hirokazu Kobayashi, Dr. Akshat Tanksale, Prof. Atsushi Fukuoka and Dr. Jorge Beltramini

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301020

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      Fix that bed: The catalytic conversion of cellulose to sugar alcohols in high yield in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor through hydrolytic transfer hydrogenation is described. Ru supported on activated carbon catalyses direct hydrogen transfer from 2-propanol to glucose without the involvement of hydrogen gas.

    17. Dinuclear Zinc–N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes for Either the Controlled Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide or the Controlled Degradation of Polylactide Under Mild Conditions (pages 1357–1367)

      Dr. Christophe Fliedel, Diogo Vila-Viçosa, Prof. Maria José Calhorda, Dr. Samuel Dagorne and Prof. Teresa Avilés

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301015

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      Mild thing: Simple dinuclear zinc–N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) alkyl/alkoxide complexes mediate, under mild conditions, either the ring-opening polymerization of lactide (in an effective and controlled manner) for the production of chain length-controlled polylactide or, in the presence of an alcohol source such as MeOH, the controlled depolymerization of polylactide through extensive transesterification reactions.

    18. Facile Synthesis of Hybrid Core–Shell Nanospheres for the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Aromatic Ketones (pages 1368–1374)

      Juan Wei, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang, Yaopeng Zhao, Prof. Ruixiang Li and Prof. Qihua Yang

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301011

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      Clever condensation: A sol–gel process is used for the synthesis of polymer–inorganic hybrid core–shell composites with a mixture of poly(methyl acrylate)–organosilane (PMA SiO2) and tetraethoxysilane as a co-condensed silane source and the polystyrene-supported N-(para-toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine-type ligand as a polymer core. These core–shell materials demonstrate high reactivity and excellent ee values for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones in aqueous HCOONa.

    19. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Cobalt Nanoparticles as High-Performance Catalysts for the Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane (pages 1375–1379)

      Kengo Aranishi, Dr. Qi-Long Zhu and Prof. Dr. Qiang Xu

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301006

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      A web of hydrolysis: Dendrimer-encapsulated Co nanoparticles (G6-OH(Co60)) are synthesized by complexation of Co2+ cations to the internal tertiary amine of sixth-generation hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers followed by reduction by both sodium borohydride and ammonia borane in aqueous solution. The highly dispersed G6-OH(Co60) show high catalytic activities in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane in aqueous solution at different reaction temperatures.

    20. Insights into the Organocatalyzed Synthesis of Urethanes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: An In Situ FTIR Spectroscopic Kinetic Study (pages 1380–1391)

      Dr. Christopher A. Smith, Prof. Henri Cramail and Dr. Thierry Tassaing

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201301002

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      Back to the FTIR: The most efficient organocatalysts have been identified for the reaction of alcohols with isocyanates in supercritical CO2 in a step towards a green process for polyurethane synthesis. The order of activity of the catalysts in supercritical CO2 does not always follow that observed in conventional media.

    21. Improved Photocatalytic Performance of the Ultra-small Ag Nanocrystallite-Decorated TiO2 Hollow Sphere Heterostructures (pages 1392–1400)

      Qian Li, Dr. Caihong Zhang, Prof. Jianmin Ma, Prof. Guozhong Wang and Prof. Dickon H. L. Ng

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300994

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      Hollow, Hollow, Hollow: Ag–TiO2 hollow sphere heterostructures demonstrate an excellent photodegradation efficiency of rhodamine B under simulated sunlight irradiation owing to the excellent dispersion of Ag nanocrystallites, increase in surface adsorbed oxygen, and increased lifetime of charge carriers.

    22. Viability of Au/CeO2–ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts for Pure Hydrogen Production by the Water–Gas Shift Reaction (pages 1401–1409)

      Tomás Ramírez Reina, Dr. Svetlana Ivanova, Dr. Juan José Delgado, Dr. Ivan Ivanov, Dr. Vasko Idakiev, Dr. Tatyana Tabakova, Dr. Miguel Angel Centeno and Prof. José Antonio Odriozola

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300992

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      Zinc booster: A series of gold catalysts supported on ZnO-promoted CeO2–Al2O3 are applied in the purification of H2 streams through the water–gas shift reaction. The addition of ZnO promotes the activity of an Au/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst. This increase in activity is mainly associated with the enhanced O2 storage capacity of the Zn-containing solids. The prepared catalysts tolerate start–stop cycles, showing potential for industrial application.

    23. The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Distribution on Oxygen Electroreduction Activity and Selectivity (pages 1410–1418)

      Dr. Emiliana Fabbri, Susan Taylor, Annett Rabis, Dr. Pieter Levecque, Dr. Olaf Conrad, Dr. Rüdiger Kötz and Prof. Thomas J. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300987

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      The effect of a close neighbor: Pt nanoparticles assembled in extended particulate layers show a higher specific activity and selectivity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than dispersed Pt nanoparticles. The higher specific ORR activity for extended Pt layers is correlated to a lower adsorption energy for oxygenated species, which leads to a lower amount of blocked active sites for the ORR compared to isolated Pt nanoparticles.

    24. Polymer-Stabilized Palladium Nanoparticles for the Chemoselective Transfer Hydrogenation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls: Single-Step Bottom-Up Approach (pages 1419–1426)

      Dr. Sanjit K. Mahato, Dr. Rafique Ul Islam, Chiranjit Acharya, Prof. Michael J. Witcomb and Prof. Kaushik Mallick

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300985

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      Podium position for palladium: A palladium–polypyrrole composite is synthesized for the chemoselective transfer hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds by using an in situ polymerisation and composite formation method. No semi-hydrogenated product was observed with alkyne systems and hydrodehalogenation of the haloarene segment of the substrate was not encountered in reactions with this catalyst.

    25. Characterization of a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Catalyst on Ensemble and Individual Particle Level by X-ray Micro- and Nanotomography, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence, and Micro-X-ray Diffraction (pages 1427–1437)

      Dr. Simon R. Bare, Meghan E. Charochak, Dr. Shelly D. Kelly, Dr. Barry Lai, Dr. Jun Wang and Dr. Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300974

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      Mini techniques, bigger picture: A combination of advanced characterization techniques, synchrotron X-ray micro- and nanotomography, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and micro-XRD, are used to characterize a commercial spent equilibrium fluid catalytic cracking catalyst at both the ensemble and individual particle level.

    26. Structure–Activity Relationships of Nickel–Hexaaluminates in Reforming Reactions Part I: Controlling Nickel Nanoparticle Growth and Phase Formation (pages 1438–1446)

      Thomas Roussière, Korwin M. Schelkle, Sven Titlbach, Guido Wasserschaff, Dr. Andrian Milanov, Dr. Gerhard Cox, Dr. Ekkehard Schwab, Prof. Dr. Olaf Deutschmann, Linus Schulz, Dr. Andreas Jentys, Prof. Dr. Johannes Lercher and Dr. Stephan A. Schunk

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300960

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      Mission nickel part I: Nickel nanoparticle growth on Ni–hexaaluminate is assessed by STEM and X-ray powder diffraction methods before and after reduction. The study focuses on the influence of parameters such as Ni substitution degree, mirror plane cation (La, Sr, and Ba), and calcination temperature. A reduction mechanism is proposed (see picture).

    27. Structure–Activity Relationships of Nickel–Hexaaluminates in Reforming Reactions Part II: Activity and Stability of Nanostructured Nickel–Hexaaluminate-Based Catalysts in the Dry Reforming of Methane (pages 1447–1452)

      Thomas Roussière, Linus Schulz, Korwin M. Schelkle, Guido Wasserschaff, Dr. Andrian Milanov, Dr. Ekkehard Schwab, Prof. Dr. Olaf Deutschmann, Dr. Andreas Jentys, Prof. Dr. Johannes Lercher and Dr. Stephan A. Schunk

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300958

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      Mission nickel part II: The influence of major parameters of Ni–hexaaluminates such as calcination temperature, Ni substitution degree and mirror plane cation (Ba, La and Sr) are investigated in this study. The achieved highly textural growth of Ni0 nanoparticles can be used to perform stably dry reforming of methane at elevated pressure.

    28. Facile Synthesis of Au/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites: An Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Plasmonic Photocatalyst with Enhanced Hydrogen Gas Evolution Under Visible-Light Irradiation (pages 1453–1462)

      Subhajyoti Samanta, Dr. Satyabadi Martha and Dr. Kulamani Parida

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300949

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      Golden excitement: Au nanoparticles deposited on g-C3N4 photocatalyst by a facile deposition–precipitation method exhibit high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen gas production under visible light irradiation. The accumulated electron density on the surface of the Au nanoparticles easily reduce water molecules to produce hydrogen gas. (VB=valence band, CB=conduction band, TEA=triethanolamine).

    29. Bisepoxide Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates—New Immobilized Biocatalysts for Selective Biotransformations (pages 1463–1469)

      Diána Weiser, Andrea Varga, Klaudia Kovács, Flóra Nagy, Dr. András Szilágyi, Prof. Dr. Beáta G. Vértessy, Dr. Csaba Paizs and Prof. Dr. László Poppe

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300806

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      The missing linker: Glycerol diglycidyl ether is applied as a cross-linker for cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of various enzymes such as lipases and phenylalanine ammonia lyases. The bisepoxide CLEAs prove to be efficient and robust biocatalysts surpassing the performance of the glutaraldehyde CLEAs.

    30. One-pot Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous NiCeAl Oxide Catalysts and a Study of Their Performance in Methane Dry Reforming (pages 1470–1480)

      Dr. Ning Wang, Dr. Zhenxin Xu, Dr. Jie Deng, Dr. Kui Shen, Dr. Xiaopeng Yu, Prof. Weizhong Qian, Prof. Wei Chu and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300720

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      Everything begins with an order: Ordered mesoporous NiAl and NiCeAl (R) catalysts with various Ce contents were prepared by using the improved evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Compared with NiAl catalysts, Ce-incorporated catalysts demonstrated higher specific surface areas, larger pore volumes, and more uniform pore sizes. The incorporation of Ce promoted the high dispersion and high reducibility of Ni species, which led to an improved catalytic activity for methane dry reforming.

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