Gender differences in caregiver emotion socialization of low-income toddlers



Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers' responses to their toddlers' emotion displays, with findings indicating more supportive and fewer punitive responses to boys' anger than to girls', but few gender differences for sadness/anxiety. Finally, they present two models (the emotion competence model and differential emotions model) for understanding relations between emotion socialization and the development of psychopathology, particularly in low-income children. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.