• Membrane processes;
  • Ultrafiltration;
  • Wastewater purification


Membrane processes have become very important tools in water management and water related environmental engineering, because their efficiency has been proven from a technical and economical, as well as an ecological, point of view. This situation is partially based on results obtained during the operation of reverse osmosis systems that were developed in the early days of this technology for the desalination of seawater. Details regarding the theoretical background of these pressure driven membrane processes, examples of their application in water treatment, limiting factors, operational data and results for the purification efficiency are considered as the basis for the discussion of decision-supporting criteria for the selection of these technologies for possible applications, and as basis for the evaluation of future developments.