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Abstract

Although carbon dixoide is important as an abundant carbonaceous raw material, so far, its utilization in chemical processes has been rather limited. This review covers the reactions of CO2 employed in industry, such as the production of urea, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction, the synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates and the use of CO2 in methanol synthesis. Interesting recent developments in CO2 chemistry, such as the reactions catalyzed by transition metals, are also described. Apart from the synthesis of polymers and hydrocarbons, the production of oxygen-containing substances appears to be very profitable and attractive for future industrial applications. Not only can derivatives of formic and carbonic acids be produced but also longer-chain carboxylic acids and their derivatives by reactions of carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons such as alkynes, alkenes and 1,3-dienes.