Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 5

Special Issue: Change of raw materials

May, 2008

Volume 31, Issue 5

Pages 619–797

Issue edited by: Otto Machhammer

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Logging. © Digital Vision (Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2008)

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200890015

  2. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2008 (page 619)

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200890016

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2008 (pages 620–624)

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200890017

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. “Change to Renewable Raw Materials” (page 625)

      Otto Machhammer

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200890018

  5. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Forum: Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2008 (pages 627–628)

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200890019

  6. Scientific Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
  7. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Raw Material Changes in the Chemical Industry (pages 631–637)

      R. Diercks, J.-D. Arndt, S. Freyer, R. Geier, O. Machhammer, J. Schwartze and M. Volland

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In the past century, there has been a consistent changeover in fossil fuel sources from coal to crude oil and natural gas due to lower prices, simpler logistics and the versatility in usage. In view of the limited availability and increasing price of crude oil and natural gas, attempts are made here to answer the question of how the raw material base for the chemical industry will develop in the future?

    2. Use of Renewable Raw Materials in the Chemical Industry – Beyond Sugar and Starch (pages 638–646)

      K. Muffler and R. Ulber

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800066

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Feedstock for industrial chemical processes is mainly based on petroleum oil. In the near future, alternative reservoirs must be tapped on extensively. Here, a few current trends focusing on C1 carbonic compounds such as methanol and methane, which can be used as fuel substitute but also as valuable compounds within a chemical refinery, are presented.

    3. Succinic Acid: A New Platform Chemical for Biobased Polymers from Renewable Resources (pages 647–654)

      I. Bechthold, K. Bretz, S. Kabasci, R. Kopitzky and A. Springer

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The biotechnological production of succinic acid has been improved within the last decade. Therefore, the use of succinic acid and derived chemicals (e.g. γ-butyrolactone, 1,4-butanediole, pyrrolidones) for the production of novel biopolymers (e.g. polyesters, poly(ester amide)s) can become an opportunity to substitute fossil-based pathways.

    4. Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts for the Biomass-to-Liquid (BTL)-Process (pages 655–666)

      E. van Steen and M. Claeys

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800067

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is at the heart of the Biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process. Here, we present an overview for both cobalt- and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The role of the support material and various other additives to the catalyst formulation are discussed in detail with regard to activity, catalyst deactivation, and selectivity.

    5. Direct Liquefaction of Biomass (pages 667–677)

      F. Behrendt, Y. Neubauer, M. Oevermann, B. Wilmes and N. Zobel

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The current activities with respect to direct liquefaction of biomass aiming at the production of liquid hydrocarbons mainly for application in transportation take place in more or less uncoordinated way and are, generally, characterized by a low level of scientific understanding of the chemical and physical processes involved. Direct liquefaction is discussed and various technical implementations are critically evaluated.

    6. The Roll of Chemocatalysis in the Establishment of the Technology Platform “Renewable Resources” (pages 678–699)

      P. Claus and H. Vogel

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200700417

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The development of biomass as a sustainable raw material for the production of chemicals, plastics and fuel represents an important future task for modern industrial nations. To realize the establishment of renewable resources, new processes have to be developed. Chemocatalysis in particular is a key technology with a great innovation potential.

    7. Catalytic Processes for the Technical Use of Natural Fats and Oils (pages 700–714)

      A. Behr, A. Westfechtel and J. Pérez Gomes

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800035

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vegetable fats such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, palm oil or coconut oil consisting of triglycerides offer different carbon chain distributions. Using modern catalytic functionalization reactions at the double bonds of fatty compounds enables easy access to a number of interesting new products in a high yield.

    8. Biofuels – Economic Aspects (pages 715–720)

      G. W. Festel

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200700335

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Currently there is no clear view of the chances of success of the different types of biofuels on the market due to the variety of biofuels and evaluation factors for fuels. To assess the success potential in the short to medium term, a comparative analysis is made of the key evaluation criteria under economic aspects.

    9. Biofuels for Automobiles – An Overview (pages 721–729)

      G. Schaub and A. Vetter

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Due to increasing oil prices and climate change concerns, biofuels have become more important as potential alternative energy sources. A review of the types of biofuels, their yield potentials, characteristic properties and their environmental consequences for providing future energy requirements is presented.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Change in Raw Material Base in the Chemical Industry (pages 730–735)

      G. H. Vogel

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800062

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A key challenge for the chemical industry will be to organize a post-fossil sustainable era of material economy and to develop new processes based on alternative carbon sources.

    2. Phenols from Lignin (pages 736–745)

      M. Kleinert and T. Barth

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800073

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different thermochemical conversion routes of the natural polymer lignin towards monomeric phenolic compounds are discussed. An overview about present state-of-the-art is given and a high-yielding, one-step approach of producing alkylated phenols from lignin is presented.

    3. Reactors for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (pages 746–754)

      R. Guettel, U. Kunz and T. Turek

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nowadays, the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is undergoing a renaissance, because an increasing fraction of liquid fuels will have to be produced from alternative raw materials like natural gas, coal or biomass in the future. After an introduction to historical development and state of the art Fischer-Tropsch reactors, chances and challenges of new reactor technologies is discussed.

    4. Analysis and Evaluation of Technical and Economic Potentials of BtL-Fuels (pages 755–764)

      A. Vogel, F. Mueller-Langer and M. Kaltschmitt

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800124

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Selected options to produce BtL-fuels via thermo-chemical gasification are analyzed and assessed by means of technical and economic criteria. Based on these results, aspects related to market implementation are discussed.

    5. The IBUS Process – Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Close to a Commercial Reality (pages 765–772)

      J. Larsen, M. Østergaard Petersen, L. Thirup, H. Wen Li and F. Krogh Iversen

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      One of the most promising renewable energy sources for replacing petroleum in the transport sector is lignocellulosic bioethanol. This article describes the IBUS process, a process developed to convert lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol, solid biofuel, and feed. It is based on new energy efficient technology and uses steam and enzymes only – no chemicals.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Overview
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Reviews
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Motor Fuels From Biomass Pyrolysis (pages 773–781)

      T. Barth and M. Kleinert

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800122

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different pyrolysis techniques for converting solid biomass material into liquid fuels are described and compared. New data from pyrolysis in liquid reaction media is presented and compared to fast pyrolysis oils and HTU as described in the literature. The quality of the oils is evaluated, and the range of different possible applications is emphasized.

    2. Fuels and Fuel Cells: The “Right Way” from Fuels to Fuel Gas (pages 782–787)

      U. Hennings, M. Brune, M. Wolf and R. Reimert

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fuel cells are considered for various applications as well as in connection with the use of several types of energy feedstocks, both fossil and renewable. The resulting large number of possible combinations is summarized by a graph, i.e., the “fan”. The graphic description is explained by means of selected examples.

    3. New Unit for Clean Energy Production from Contaminated Biomass (pages 788–791)

      P. Stehlík, Q. Smejkal and R. Štulíř

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new modern unit is presented for energy production from contaminated biomass and/or alternative fuels. The unit described provides high efficiency and low operating costs, and therefore, constitutes a highly competitive solution for the utilization of contaminated biomass and other alternative fuels.

    4. Vegetal Refining and Agrochemistry (pages 792–797)

      M. Delmas

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The industrial process developed by CIMV is a world first for the manufacture of whitened paper pulp, sulfur free linear lignin and xylose syrup from annual fiber crops and hardwood. The pilot plant in operation since 2006 has given fully satisfactory results. A scale up of the original CIMV concept to result in production at industrial levels is expected in 2009.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION