Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 33 Issue 9

Special Issue: Grinding and Milling

September, 2010

Volume 33, Issue 9

Pages 1387–1551

Issue edited by: Arno Kwade

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2010

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090039

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2010

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090040

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2010 (page 1387)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090041

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2010 (pages 1388–1393)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090042

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Wet grinding and dispering – still a vivid topic! (page 1395)

      Arno Kwade

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090043

  6. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Forum: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2010 (pages 1396–1397)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201090044

  7. Scientific Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Nanoparticle Production with Stirred-Media Mills: Opportunities and Limits (pages 1401–1411)

      C. Knieke, C. Steinborn, S. Romeis, W. Peukert, S. Breitung-Faes and A. Kwade

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The grinding limit and its influencing factors are of great interest for nanoparticle production by top-down approaches. This article deals with the limits of grinding from different points of view (apparent grinding limit, true grinding limit, viscous dampening-related grinding limit) and emphasizes parameters enabling an energy-saving comminution process.

    2. Accelerated Formulation Development for Nanomilled Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using a Screening Approach (pages 1412–1418)

      M. Juhnke, J. Berghausen and C. Timpe

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000062

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A screening media mill is presented for the accelerated formulation development of nanomilled active pharmaceutical ingredients which can operate up to 24 experiments in parallel with batch sizes down to 1 mg. The systematic screening of nanomilling formulations is shown by two case studies. Selected nanomilling formulations were also investigated regarding up-scaling using a miniaturized and a laboratory-scale stirred media mill.

    3. Wet Classification in the Fines Range < 10 μm (pages 1419–1426)

      F. Müller

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900540

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A short survey of state-of-the-art classification apparatuses for particles in the fines range between 10–100 μm including gravity-sedimentation classifiers, sieves and filters is provided. Classification in the fines ranges < 10 μm is shown to require the use of centrifugal field classifiers and processes such as hydrocyclones, centrifuges and hydroclassifiers are detailed. The operation behavior, advantages and disadvantages of a stirred media mill/classifier circuit are described and justified from an economic perspective.

    4. Advanced M5 Modeling of Stirred Media Milling (pages 1427–1432)

      T. Rodič and J. Langus

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The concept of stirred media milling is modeled as a full M5 process by taking into account Multi-scale, Multi-body, Multi-field, Multi-phase and Multi-objective effects. By combining different numerical approaches it is possible to develop an efficient computational model of the process. Both mill manufacturers and users should see great advantages in using such a strong numerical tool for optimizing mill design and grinding parameters.

    5. Improvement in the Collision Intensity of Grinding Media in High Energy Impact Mills (pages 1433–1437)

      D. V. N. Prasad and J. Theuerkauf

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900392

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The discrete element method was applied to model the grinding ball motion in a Spex mixer mill. The motion of the grinding media is complex as the grinding chamber undergoes both vibrational and rotational motion. A commercial particle flow code software is used for the simulations.

    6. Two Colliding Grinding Beads: Experimental Flow Fields and Particle Capture Efficiency (pages 1438–1446)

      R. Gers, D. Anne-Archard, E. Climent, D. Legendre and C. Frances

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000156

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Predicting the collision efficiency between two grinding beads and the number of captured and broken particles during one single collision helps optimizing the mill process. A large-scale experiment simulating the approach of two grinding beads in different configurations was designed to analyze the fluid drainage by particle image velocimetry. A capture probability of suspended particles was estimated.

    7. Production of Highly Loaded Nanocomposites by Dispersing Nanoparticles in Epoxy Resin (pages 1447–1455)

      H. Nolte, C. Schilde and A. Kwade

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000096

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different techniques are investigated for the production of highly loaded nanocomposites by dispersing alumina nanoparticles with different surface modifications in epoxy resin. In order to prepare the matrix suspension, high contents of fillers are dispersed by conducting shear mixing techniques in a high performance laboratory kneader. The physical properties of the nanocomposites are reported.

    8. The Effect of Grinding Media Performance on Milling a Water-Based Color Pigment (pages 1456–1463)

      U. Weber

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of grinding media performance on milling and operational behavior is demonstrated for different selected conditions of a water-based red pigment slurry milling. The collected test data is used to calculate and evaluate the specific energy and stress intensity under different milling conditions to determine the optimum milling parameters regarding the particle size and the pigment color.

    9. Advanced Milling and Containment Technologies for Superfine Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (pages 1464–1470)

      J. Stein, T. Fuchs and C. Mattern

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900590

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dry and wet milling methods can create active pharmaceutical particles in the μm- or nano-size range. A special pharmaceutical design as well as process optimization allow processing with lowest rates of contamination. Hazards can be controlled by specific containment technology. All mills are available in various sizes for smallest R&D samples up to production scale.

    10. A Mathematical Model for Predicting Release Rate from Multiple Emulsions and Micro/Nanospheres (pages 1471–1480)

      E. Dluska and A. Markowska-Radomska

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000095

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The proposing model enables predictions of release rate from multiple emulsions and micro/nanospheres with just five common parameters that describe internal structure of the delivery system and the hydrodynamic conditions of the surrounding medium. The model can simulate the release profiles of microspheres that exhibit phasic behavior.

    11. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Xylitol Production from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate in a Fluidized Bed Reactor (pages 1481–1487)

      B. F. Sarrouh and S. S. da Silva

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900546

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Currently, xylitol is produced on an industrial scale by a chemical reaction from pure xylose extracted from hemicellulose hydrolysates under high pressure and at high temperature. This research aims to optimize the biotechnological production of xylitol using the hemicellulose fraction of sugarcane bagasse in a fluidized bed bioreactor. A response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimal operating conditions for better xylitol yield and productivity.

    12. Run-to-Run Optimization of Fed-Batch Fermentation for Ethanol Production (pages 1488–1494)

      W.-H. Huang, G. S. Shieh and F.-S. Wang

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900513

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optimization of the fed-batch fermentation process requires a reliable kinetic model to characterize the dynamic behavior of microorganisms. Here, a two-stage run-to-run optimization strategy is introduced for the design of optimal control policies for fed-batch fermentation using S. diastaticus LORRE 316. This optimal approach is shown to improve the ethanol production rate by at least 12.56 %.

    13. You have free access to this content
      Integration of Solar Energy into Absorption Refrigerators and Industrial Processes (pages 1495–1505)

      E. A. Tora and M. M. El-Halwagi

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A systematic approach is proposed for the design of absorption refrigeration systems with hot water loops that are integrated with industrial facilities and employ a combination of excess process heat, fossil fuels, and solar energy. Thermal pinch analysis and an optimization approach are used to determine the design and operation of the system.

    14. Effects of Flow Pulsation on Forced Convection in a Channel Containing Regularly Spaced Nonconducting Fins (pages 1506–1514)

      B. O. Olayiwola, G. Schaldach and P. Walzel

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900547

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flow pulsation was applied to enhance convection in a heat transfer device containing a series of regularly spaced, nonconducting fins. A correlation equation was developed capturing the heat transfer performance of the system. The results show the significant influence at low flow rates and diminishing effect at higher flow rates. The energy input due to the imposed oscillation is comparatively low.

    15. Extraction of Oxidized Sulfur-Containing Compounds of Non-Hydrotreated Gas Oil (pages 1515–1524)

      M. A. Sobati, A. M. Dehkordi and M. Shahrokhi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900622

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The liquid/liquid extraction of oxidized sulfur-containing compounds of gas oil feedstock is investigated. The influences of various operating parameters such as solvent type, solvent to gas oil ratio, and number of extraction stages on the desulfurization and gas oil recovery are studied in detail. The most appropriate operating parameters for the liquid/liquid extraction process are determined.

    16. Performance Evaluation of Oxygen-Depolarized Cathode with PtPd/C Electrocatalyst Layer in Advanced Chlor-Alkali Cell (pages 1525–1530)

      E. Joudaki, F. Farzami, V. Mahdavi and S. J. Hashemi

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The development of the advanced chlor-alkali (CA) membrane cell would have a meaningful effect on energy consumption cut-off. One of the major challenges in oxygen-depolarized CA cells is the development of a high-performance cathode with the best electrocatalyst. In this study, the performance of a new cathode containing a carbon-supported PtPd electrocatalyst is investigated under process conditions.

    17. Effect of Fluoride on the Photocatalytic Activity of Hollow TiO2 Microspheres prepared by Fluoride-Mediated Self-Transformation (pages 1531–1536)

      M. Liu, K. L. Lv, G. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wang, Y. X. Zhao and Y. R. Deng

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000144

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of residual fluoride on the photocatalytic activity of hollow TiO2 microspheres was studied. The experimental results show that fluoride-induced surface modification plays a more important role than fluoride-induced crystallization on the enhanced photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2 hollow microspheres.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Forum
    8. Scientific Highlights
    9. Research Articles
    10. Communications
    1. Pervaporative Dehydration of Alcohols by Carbonized Kapton® Polyimide (pages 1537–1542)

      A. Sungpet and C. Prapruddivongs

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of carbonized Kapton® polyimide, prepared at various conditions, to remove water from water/alcohol mixtures by pervaporation, is reported. It is found that carbonization temperature has a strong influence on the pore size. A comparison between permeability from single-component and bi-component feeds indicates that the separation mechanism involves more than molecular sieving.

    2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Hydrazine Hydrate Technologies (pages 1543–1551)

      P. Nikhitha and K. B. S. Saibabu

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The increasing demand for hydrazine hydrate emphasizes the need to focus on the techno-economic analysis of the existing technologies. The Raschig process, urea process, and peroxide-ketazine process were chosen for technical analysis, cost estimation, and economic assessment. Due to the least investment and maximum profits, peroxide-ketazine-based process is technically and economically favorable.

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