Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 5

May, 2012

Volume 35, Issue 5

Pages 783–947

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2012

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201290023

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 5/2012

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201290024

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
  6. Scientific Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Drying Kinetics of Silica Gel: Statistical Discrimination Using Nonlinearity Measures (pages 797–802)

      G. F. M. V. Souza, R. F. Miranda, E. B. Arruda, O. S. H. Mendoza and M. A. S. Barrozo

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100342

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The drying kinetics of silica gel was analyzed based on an experimental study performed in a thin-layer dryer and a statistical discrimination of the main drying kinetic equations. Five semi-empirical drying kinetics equations were discriminated using measures of curvature and bias. The Overhults equation is shown to be the best one to describe the drying kinetics of silica gel.

    2. Optimization of the Biotechnological Process for Hide Unhairing in Substitution of Toxic Sulfides (pages 803–810)

      A. Dettmer, J. Coelho Cavalheiro, É. Cavalli, D. Misturini Rossi, C. de Souza Gusatti, M. A. Záchia Ayub and M. Gutterres

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100350

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The applicability of unpurified proteolytic extracts from microorganisms isolated from tannery sludge for unhairing of hides was investigated. The Bacillus subtilis BLBc 11 strain turned out to be an excellent producer of such enzymes with hide unhairing capabilities. This safe enzymatic preparation can replace the toxic chemicals commonly used in this process.

    3. Ion Exchange Adsorption Studies of Miglitol in a Fixed Bed (pages 811–818)

      J. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, H. Li and B. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100685

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The adsorption of miglitol on the D001 resin in a fixed bed was studied. Breakthrough curves at different flows were described by the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart models. The aim was to provide the theoretical basis and technical support for further separation investigations, to reduce the cost of miglitol synthesis and to provide guidance in technical designs of miglitol purification.

    4. Prediction of the Melt Index Based on the Relevance Vector Machine with Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (pages 819–826)

      H. Jiang, Y. Xiao, J. Li and X. Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A chemical soft-sensor approach for the prediction of the melt index (MI) in the propylene polymeriza-tion industry is presented. The relevance vector machine (RVM) is employed to build the MI prediction model. A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is then introduced to optimize the parameter of the RVM and an online correcting strategy is carried out to update the modeling data.

    5. Thermogravimetry-FTIR Analysis of Pyrolysis of Pyrolytic Lignin Extracted from Bio-Oil (pages 827–833)

      X. Jiang, N. Ellis, D. K. Shen, J. Jiang, W. Dai and Z. Zhong

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000400

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pyrolytic lignin contributes to the instability of bio-oil; however, it is also discussed as a potential chemical material. In order to improve the stability of bio-oil high- (HMM) and low-molecular-mass (LMM) pyrolytic lignins were obtained by solvent extraction. The microstructures, pyrolysis behavior, and gas generation of HMM and LMM were investigated by thermogravimetry-FTIR.

    6. Dynamic Heat Transfer Characteristics Modeling of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries (pages 834–840)

      Z. Chen, F. Shan and G.-Y. Fang

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100601

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The heat transfer characteristics of microencapsulated phase change slurries are analyzed and the effects of Stefan number, mass concentration, and Reynolds number are discussed. The phase change process, Stefan number, and mass fraction influence these heat transfer characteristics significantly. The heat transfer coefficient increases with higher Reynolds numbers.

    7. Synthesis of High-Purity Methylal via Extractive Catalytic Distillation (pages 841–846)

      H. Liu, H. Gao, Y. Ma, Z. Gao and W. Eli

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100446

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An integrated continuous process combining catalytic distillation and extractive distillation in one column is applied for high-purity methylal synthesis from methanol and formalin in the presence of a cation-exchange resin catalyst. Under optimum conditions, using water as extractant, the extractive catalytic distillation process provided a methylal purity of 98.7 % with 98.0 % formaldehyde conversion.

    8. Sorption-Enhanced Steam Reforming of Ethanol: Thermodynamic Comparison of CO2 Sorbents (pages 847–858)

      Y. J. Wu, F. Díaz Alvarado, J. C. Santos, F. Gracia, A. F. Cunha and A. E. Rodrigues

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100534

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The current research status of thermodynamic analysis on ethanol steam reforming (SRE) and sorption-enhanced SRE (SE-SRE) is surveyed. Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc), CaO, and Li2ZrO3 as three typical CO2 sorbents for SE-SRE are compared for the first time. The simulated results agree well with other publications.

    9. Enhancement Factor for Gas Absorption in a Finite Liquid Layer. Part 2: First- and Second-Order Reactions in a Liquid in Plug Flow (pages 859–869)

      J. Yue, E. V. Rebrov and J. C. Schouten

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200071

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An analytical solution to the enhancement factor was derived for gas absorption with a first-order reaction in a finite liquid layer in plug flow. The exact solution to the enhancement factor was obtained numerically for the case of a second-order reaction. The enhancement factor in both reaction cases tends to deviate from the penetration theory's solution at Fourier numbers above 0.1. Approxi-mate expressions describing the obtained solutions were proposed.

    10. Synthesis Gas Production Configurations for Gas-to-Liquid Applications (pages 870–876)

      A. Rafiee and M. Hillestad

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100674

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different syngas configurations in a gas-to-liquid plant comprising autothermal reformer (ATR), combined reformer, and series arrangements of gas-heated reformer and ATR are investigated and optimized. The production rate of liquid hydrocarbons is maximized for each syngas configuration. By installing a steam methane reformer in the syngas production unit, the production rate can be increased by 25.3 %.

    11. On the Stability of Pulse-Jet Regenerated-Bag Filter Operation (pages 877–884)

      M. Saleem and G. Krammer

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100516

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Long-term stable operation of a filter plant is desirable for both the manufacturers and operators. Filter operation derailed from stable to unstable operation on changing one of the operating parameters under many combinations of operating conditions. A threshold detachment overpressure existed below which the operation led to unstable conditions at a certain filtration velocity and which increased with increasing velocity.

    12. Fabrication of Homogenous Polymer-Zeolite Nanocomposites as Mixed-Matrix Membranes for Gas Separation (pages 885–892)

      H. Karkhanechi, H. Kazemian, H. Nazockdast, M. R. Mozdianfard and S. M. Bidoki

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100236

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Homogeneous mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) based on polyimide-zeolite nanocrystal composites were developed using an optimized manufacturing approach to improve the interfacial compatibility between the zeolite and the polymer matrix for selective gas separation. The permeabilities and selectivities of the MMMs toward CO2, CH4 and N2 gases were studied at different feed pressures.

    13. Manufacture of Granular Polysilicon from Trichlorosilane in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor (pages 893–898)

      C. J. Wang, T. F. Wang and Z. W. Wang

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100286

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The preparation of polysilicon from trichlorosilane by chemical vapor deposition was studied in a lab-scale fluidized-bed reactor. A well-grown polysilicon product was obtained. The temperature and H2/SiHCl3 ratio significantly affected conversion, yield, and selectivity which were less influenced by gas velocity and seed particle loading at higher temperatures.

    14. Yield Optimization in a Cycled Trickle-Bed Reactor: Ethanol Catalytic Oxidation as a Case Study (pages 899–903)

      A. Ayude, M. Cassanello, O. Martínez and P. Haure

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100422

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      ON-OFF liquid flow modulation in a trickle-bed reactor and its impact on the yield of ethanol oxidation in presence of a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst is studied. High cycling frequencies benefit the yield toward the intermediate product, while intermediate frequencies significantly increase the final product yield. As demonstrated, product distribution can be considerably modified through frequency tuning.

    15. Solids Holdup of High Flux Circulating Fluidized Bed at Elevated Pressure (pages 904–910)

      S. Yin, B. Jin, W. Zhong, Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao and H. Liu

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100486

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Experiments on the flow behavior in a high-flux circulating fluidized bed with Geldart group B particles were carried out at various operating pressures, solids mass fluxes and standard state superficial gas velocities. The influence of operating pressure, solids mass flux and superficial gas velocity on the solids holdup distribution were systematically tested.

    16. Purification of β-Galactosidase by Ion Exchange Chromatography: Elution Optimization Using an Experimental Design (pages 911–918)

      F. Oliveira de Medeiros, C. A. Veiga Burkert and S. Juliano Kalil

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100571

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In an innovative study, the effects of elution pH and salt gradient volume were evaluated by ion exchange chromatography using an experimental design and response surface techniques for purification of β-galactosidase in only one chromato- graphy step. After optimization, β-galactosidase could be purified effectively with a 12-fold purification factor and 85.5 % recovery in a cost-reducing single step.

    17. Dynamic Simulation of a Pilot Scale Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrocracking Unit by the Space-Time CE/SE Method (pages 919–928)

      S. Sadighi, A. Ahmad and M. Shirvani

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100305

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A four-lump dynamic model including vacuum gas oil, middle distillate, naphtha and gas was developed. To solve it, a modified space-time conservation element and solution element method was introduced to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pilot-scale hydrocracking reactor. The approach was evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained by applying the finite difference method.

    18. Discrete Bubble Model for Prediction of Bubble Behavior in 3D Fluidized Beds (pages 929–936)

      S. Movahedirad, M. Ghafari and A. M. Dehkordi

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100383

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new modified discrete bubble model has been developed for freely bubbling fluidized beds. The influence of two various types of bubble-bubble interaction models on the bubble behavior were investigated and a new coalescence method based on the wake angle of gas bubbles was applied. It was found that the delayed coalescence method predicts bubble behavior better than the sudden coalescence method.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Technological Aspects of Nanoemulsion Formation of Low-Fat Foods Enriched with Vitamin E by High-Pressure Homogenization (pages 937–940)

      O. S. El Kinawy, S. Petersen and J. Ulrich

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100608

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different variables affecting the emulsification process, such as pressure, temperature, and concentration of the emulsifying agent, are evaluated for the formation of a low-fat O/W nanoemulsion with vitamin E using the nonionic surfactant Tween 40. As a result, it is recommended to use preparations of nanoemulsions with low fat contents enriched with vitamin E for dietary supplement.

    2. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes (pages 941–946)

      I. Levitsky, R. Naim, A. Duek and V. Gitis

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100465

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemical cleaning is an integral part of the membrane separation process and one of the few remaining areas to improve the overall protein purification. More intensive cleaning increases the membrane hydrophilicity and the water flux, but soon causes more severe fouling and even membrane disintegration.

  9. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Forum
    7. Scientific Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION