Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 12

December, 2013

Volume 36, Issue 12

Pages 2011–2179

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2013

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390062

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2013

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390063

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
  6. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. New Insights into Additive Structure Effect on Crystal Agglomeration of L-Valine (pages 2023–2028)

      H. Yoshiura, H. Nagano and I. Hirasawa

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300383

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The control of the crystal morphology of amino acids is very important in industry to prevent undesired contamination. The previously unidentified role of guest amino acids that act on the agglomeration of L-valine crystals during evaporative crystallization was revealed. With the knowledge obtained in this work, the agglomeration of L-valine will be controllable using small amount of additives.

    2. Axial Equilibrium Distance and Positioning of Particles in a Laminar Tube Flow (pages 2029–2034)

      P. Matulka, M. Fischer, P. Ehrhard and P. Walzel

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Alternative particle separation methods are necessary if standard techniques like sieving and sedimentation cannot be used. Particle transport in a laminar tube flow at low Reynolds numbers leads to accumulation of particles at specific equilibrium radii. Experimental results are compared with CFD-simulations of single particle movement in a laminar tube flow.

    3. Numerical Investigation of the Gas-Solid Flow Characteristics in a Three-Dimensional Spouted Bed with a Draft Tube (pages 2035–2043)

      S.-L. Yang, K. Luo, M.-M. Fang, K. Zhang and J.-R. Fan

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of a draft tube on the dynamics in a spouted bed need to be considered for efficient operation. Gas-solid motions in a 3D conical spouted bed with a draft tube are simulated by coupling computational fluid dynamics with the discrete-element method. The gas motion is solved at the computational grid level while the solid motion is tracked on the particle scale.

    4. A Bioelectrochemically-Assisted Membrane Bioreactor for Simultaneous Wastewater Treatment and Energy Production (pages 2044–2050)

      Z. Wang, J. Huang, C. Zhu, J. Ma and Z. Wu

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300322

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water scarcity and increasing energy demands are two major problems of modern society. A bioelectrochemically-assisted membrane bioreactor (BEAMBR) for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy generation was developed. A stainless-steel membrane served as not only separation membrane but also as biocathode. A maximal power density of 8.62 W m–3 was achieved and main pollutants also removed.

    5. Convection Heat Transfer of CO2 at Supercritical Pressures in Microtubes (pages 2051–2056)

      F.-Y. Yang, K. Wang, T. Liu, Y.-Q. Wang and Z.-C. Liu

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300245

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The impact of buoyancy and viscous forces on heat transfer of supercritical CO2 is mainly determined by experimental measures. Here, the impact of buoyancy on the heat transfer rate of a double-pipe heat interchanger was evaluated by means of CFD. Accuracy and reliability of the simplified numerical model were verified by comparing the results with experimental data in the literature.

    6. Laminar Forced Convection of a Water-TiO2 Nanofluid in Annuli Considering Mass Conservation for Particles (pages 2057–2064)

      M. Bahiraei, S. M. Hosseinalipour and M. Hangi

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300382

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Numerical analysis was conducted to evaluate hydrothermal characteristics of a water-TiO2 nanofluid within annuli by adding a mass conservation equation for nanoparticles to the other conservation equations in order to consider the effects of particle migration. Thereby higher heat transfer coefficients were obtained at both walls in comparison with the conventional homogeneous approach.

    7. Development of a CFD Model of Bubble Column Bioreactors: Part One – A Detailed Experimental Study (pages 2065–2070)

      D. D. McClure, J. M. Kavanagh, D. F. Fletcher and G. W. Barton

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300544

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bubble column reactors are widely used in the biotechnology industry to perform large-scale aerobic fermentations. The bubble size distribution and holdup in bubble columns for air/water and air/fermentation media systems is studied experimentally. Unlike for air-water, the bubble size distribution in fermentation media is narrow and does not change with height.

    8. Distributed Heat Supply for Distillation Control to Reduce Feed Composition Disturbance Effects (pages 2071–2079)

      C. Marangoni, R. A. F. Machado and A. Bolzan

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300266

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      A new strategy to improve operation profitability by reducing the transition time in a distillation column is presented. The conventional control system was compared with a distributed strategy that combines reboiler and intermediate temperature control loop. Reductions of ∼ 20 % in time were achieved to minimize the effect of disturbances in the feed composition.

    9. Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities of Mesoporous Silica Containing BiVO4 or La-BiVO4 (pages 2080–2086)

      H. Golmojdeh and M. A. Zanjanchi

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300160

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bismuth vanadate species are used as photocatalyst operating with visible light. Pure monoclinic BiVO4, La-doped BiVO4, and mesoporous silica MCM-41 containing either BiVO4 or La-doped BiVO4 were prepared and characterized. Catalytic degradation of chlorophenols was used to test the catalysts. Improved photocatalytic activity was observed using MCM-41 containing La-doped bismuth vanadate.

    10. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Bubble Formation Through a Microchannel T-Junction (pages 2087–2100)

      B. Chen, F. Guo, G. Li and P. Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300169

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microbubbles are an important part of chemical and biomedical engineering. Three-dimensional simulations of bubble generation in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were performed in a microchannel T-junction by the volume-of-fluid model. The influences of viscosity parameter K, power law index n, and yield stress τy on the bubble breakup mechanism, shape, size, and generation frequency were investigated.

    11. Nitrate and Nitrite Removal Using a Continuous Heterotrophic Denitrifying Granular Sludge Bioreactor (pages 2101–2107)

      M. Hosseini, E. Sahraei, A. B. Khoshfetrat and S. Ebrahimi

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300254

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Removal of nitrogen compounds is vital to avoid eutrophication of receiving waters. A continuous denitrifying granular-sludge reactor is investigated using nitrite/nitrate as electron acceptors under continuous operation mode. It provides an effective technology for the removal of nitrite, nitrate, and mixture of both with much higher tolerance to their inhibitory effects compared to an activated sludge system.

    12. Catalytic Hydrogenation for Bio-Oil Upgrading by a Supported NiMoB Amorphous Alloy (pages 2108–2116)

      M. J. Zhang, W. Z. Li, S. Zu, W. Huo, X. F. Zhu and Z. Y. Wang

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300142

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The mild hydrogenation of bio-oil is a crucial step in the production of bio fuel. Here, NiMoB catalysts were used to determine the effects of temperature and catalyst recycling on the process. Higher temperature led to smaller concentrations of unsaturated compounds but more serious particle agglomeration and coking. A suitable catalyst support increased catalytic activity and stability.

    13. Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds in Near-Critical Water (pages 2117–2124)

      Y. Liu, H. Wei, S. Wu and Z. Guo

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300281

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two types of epoxy model compounds were designed and decomposed in near-critical water under different temperatures and reaction times. The decomposition mechanism is proposed based on the compositions and distributions of the decomposition products to provide optimum operating parameters for controllable recycling of epoxy wastes in the future.

    14. Optimizing Established Processes like Sugar Extraction from Sugar Beets – Design of Experiments versus Physicochemical Modeling (pages 2125–2136)

      S. Both, J. Eggersglüß, A. Lehnberger, T. Schulz, T. Schulze and J. Strube

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300484

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Statistical design of experiments (DoE) and physicochemical process modeling are proposed for optimization of an established industrial-scale sugar extraction process from sugar beets. While DoE identifies optimization potentials concerning the operating conditions, physicochemical modeling is necessary for viable equipment design and modification.

    15. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Instantaneous Pressure Fluctuation in a Novel Jet Tank (pages 2137–2147)

      H. Meng, F. Wang, Y. Yu, Y. Wang and J. Wu

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200727

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Jet mixers are often used to mix chemically sensitive liquids. Here, the fluctuation characteristics in a novel circulating jet tank were evaluated using sample entropy and intrinsic mode entropy. Results indicate that that the pressure fluctuation complexity in the near-baffle layer is minimal, while the maximal complexity lies near the tank wall, due to the strong coherent structures.

    16. Fluid Dynamics of a Sand-Biomass Mixture in a Spouted-Bed Reactor for Fast Pyrolysis (pages 2148–2154)

      K. G. Santos, A. V. P. Campos, L. V. Ferreira, R. C. Santana and M. A. S. Barrozo

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300356

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The spouted bed is an alternative technology for pyrolysis as the spouted-bed reactor is potentially more energy-efficient than other reactors. Fluid dynamics and particle segregation of a binary mixture of sand and sugarcane bagasse in a spouted-bed reactor was investigated in order to gain insights about the segregation phenomenon which may cause severe operating problems during pyrolysis.

    17. Atrazine Removal in Municipal Secondary Effluents by Fenton and Photo-Fenton Treatments (pages 2155–2162)

      A. De Luca, R. F. Dantas, A. S. M. Simões, I. A. S. Toscano, G. Lofrano, A. Cruz and S. Esplugas

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Wastewater treatment plant effluents are increasingly used as non-potable water sources to meet increasing water demands, and therefore, efficient removal of pollutants is needed. Atrazine is used as a probe molecule for the comparison of Fenton, UV-A photo-Fenton, and UV-C photo-Fenton treatment. The study includes economical evaluations of all options.

    18. Effect of a Ni-Based Catalyst on Bio-Oil Upgrading under CO Atmosphere (pages 2163–2168)

      Q. Xu, Z. Zhang and Y. Yan

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300170

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An innovative approach of bio-oil upgrading over a Ni-based catalyst under CO atmosphere is proposed. Preparation and application of the bifunctional catalyst are described and optimum conditions for this novel method are determined. The physical properties indicate that upgraded bio-oil exhibits a higher stability as compared to crude bio-oil.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. Culture of Microalgae from Sewage Effluent (pages 2169–2173)

      K. Inoue and T. Uchida

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300108

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As the energy demands increase worldwide, while fossil fuel resources are being exhausted, algae have been used successfully as renewable energy sources. Microalgae were cultured using actual sewage effluent, utilizing otherwise lost resources. The microalgae were cultured by only supplying sewage effluent without the addition of external microalgal stock or nutrient salts.

    2. Influence of Emulsifiers on the Formation and Crystallization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (pages 2174–2178)

      O. S. El Kinawy, S. Petersen, K. Bergt and J. Ulrich

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300490

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solid lipid nanoparticles are an alternative to traditional colloidal carriers due to their lower toxicity, amongst other advantages. Both the emulsifier type and the concentration influence the production. These influences are investigated using the example of palm oil particles. Especially the stability of the fat particles in terms of different polymorphs can be intensively controlled by the emulsifier.

  8. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communications
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content

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