Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 2

February, 2013

Volume 36, Issue 2

Pages 199–363

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 2/2013

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390000

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 2/2013

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390001

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 2/2013 (page 199)

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390002

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 2/2013 (pages 200–205)

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390003

  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 2/2013 (pages 206–207)

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390004

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Medium-Temperature Shift Catalysts for Hydrogen Purification in a Single-Stage Reactor (pages 209–219)

      A. Alijani and A. Irankhah

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The medium-temperature shift (MTS) catalyst is a new concept for the volume reduction of two-stage water-gas shift reactors. Studies are performed to develop advanced catalytic systems to convert CO in a single-stage MTS reactor. MTS catalysts and new modifications are reviewed.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Effect of Temperature on Controlled Air Oxidation of Plastic and Biomass in a Packed-Bed Reactor (pages 220–227)

      Q.-M. Meng, X.-P. Chen, Y.-M. Zhuang and C. Liang

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200343

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A mixture of polypropy-lene and sawdust was chosen to study the effects of temperature on the oxidation performance of simulated medical waste in a packed-bed reactor. Detailed information in terms of product yields, compositions of liquid and gas products, and technical parameters is provided for a better understanding of the controlled air oxidation process.

    2. Ionic Liquid-Coated Nickel Phosphide Catalysts for Selective Hydrodesulfurization (pages 228–232)

      Q. Cheng, S. Xu, X. Wang and C. Guo

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200423

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ionic liquid-coated Ni2P/SiO2 catalysts with different coating thicknesses were prepared in order to enhance the selectivity in selective hydrodesulfurization of gasoline. The selectivity factor was higher after the ionic liquid coating and presented a maximum of 16.7 at full monolayer coverage on the original Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst by the ionic liquid.

    3. Biomass as Feedstock in the Chemical Industry – An Examination from an Exergetic Point of View (pages 233–240)

      P. Frenzel, S. Fayyaz, R. Hillerbrand and A. Pfennig

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200302

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using biomass as feedstock requires a re-development of the synthesis pathways via new intermediates to new end products as well as of the chemical processes. General principles are described, how the economic potential of synthesis pathways can be determined without having much detailed knowledge on the chemical processes by means of exergy balances.

    4. Characteristics of a Pressurized Gas-Solid Magnetically Fluidized Bed (pages 241–250)

      J. Zhang, Z. Feng, X. Jia, S. Xu, W. Li and M. Du

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200491

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a pressurized co-current gas-solid magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) were systematically investigated. It is shown that the pressurized MFB has the advantages of a wider operation range of the superficial gas velocity, a larger bed voidage, small pressure drop, and larger heat transfer efficiency, compared with the conventional fluidized bed.

    5. Robust Optimal Design of an Glycerol Etherification Process (pages 251–258)

      E. Vlad, C. S. Bildea and G. Bozga

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The total annual cost of a glycerol etherification plant is minimized while taking into account the uncertainty of the design data and operability constraints. The solution is obtained by constructive nonlinear dynamics, using a reactor-separation-recycle model of the plant. The effectiveness of the approach is proved by dynamic simulation.

    6. A Simple Determination Method of Adsorption Kinetics from a Liquid Phase Fixed-Bed Breakthrough Curve (pages 259–267)

      T. Kawakita, J. Fujiki, K. Tsubomatsu and E. Furuya

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200319

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The mass transfer zone method for the analysis of adsorption kinetics from a fixed-bed breakthrough curve includes approxima-tions and estimation errors. A new analytical procedure for determining intraparticle diffusivity and the fluid-film mass transfer coefficient from an experimental breakthrough curve is described. The proposed method has the advantage of less trial and error and yields reliable results.

    7. Effect of Operating Conditions on NOx and CO Emissions in a Pilot-Scale Vortexing Fluidized-Bed Combustor with Flue Gas Recirculation (pages 268–276)

      F. Qian, C. Chyang, C. Yeh and J. Tso

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) by primary air mixed with FGR or nitrogen on NOx emissions was evaluated. Bed temperature, stoichiometric oxygen ratio in the combustion chamber, and excess oxygen ratio were investigated in a vortexing fluidized-bed combustor. The results proved that the NOx emissions can be effectively decreased with FGR.

    8. Dynamic Adsorption of CO2 from Methane: Studies on Mass and Heat Transfer (pages 277–286)

      S. A. Nouh, K. K. Lau, A. M. Shariff and K. KuShaari

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200526

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A dynamic numerical computational fluid dynamics model was integrated into a commercial fluid dynamics simulator and validated to simulate the fluid flow and transport phenomena for separation of CO2-CH4 in a packed-bed adsorption column. The simulation results demonstrated a realistic pattern for the effects of operating parameters on adsorption dynamics.

    9. Hydrothermal Treatment of Carboxy-methyl Cellulose Salt: Formation and Decomposition of Furans, Pentenes and Benzenes (pages 287–294)

      M. Kröger, F. Hartmann and M. Klemm

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200468

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cellulose salt was hydrothermally treated by utilizing quartz capillaries as a convenient method to screen the reaction mechanisms over time and tempera-ture. Several products of cellulose decomposition were detected. The experiments give insights into the reaction mechanisms and the precursors of the products.

    10. Effect of Aqueous Film-Forming Foams on the Evaporation Rate of Hydrocarbon Fuels (pages 295–299)

      H. Ranjbar and B. H. Shahraki

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Evaporation rates of fuels covered with a film of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) were measured in order to evaluate the possibility to diminish evaporation losses of volatile hydrocarbons. Polyethylene glycol is able to modify the AFFF in a way that it can create a protective permanent film on the fuel surface, thus leading to reduced evaporation losses.

    11. Ozonated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Highly Active and Selective Catalyst in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene to Styrene (pages 300–306)

      N. V. Qui, P. Scholz, T. F. Keller, K. Pollok and B. Ondruschka

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200354

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Direct gas phase ozonation at room temperature was utilized to modify the properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes used as catalysts in the oxidative dehydro-genation of ethyl benzene to styrene. Catalysts treated at a high ozone concentration during their preparation are considered to be promising candidates due to their high conversion and selectivity of 80 % and 92 %, respectively.

    12. Optimization of Catalyst Loading for Porous Copper Fiber Sintered Felts Used in Methanol Steam Reforming Microreactors (pages 307–314)

      W. Zhou, Y. Tang, Q. Wang, K. S. Hui, K. N. Hui, Z. Wan and R. Song

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201100295

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An innovative porous copper fiber sintered felt (PCFSF) has been applied as catalyst support to construct a methanol steam reforming microreactor. The effects of varying porosities, catalyst loadings, and sintering temperatures were evaluated by ultrasonic water bath vibration, leading to optimized conditions for the catalyst.

    13. Regeneration of Activated Carbon Loaded with Cyclohexane Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Experimental Results and Modeling (pages 315–322)

      A. Heidari, M. N. Lotfollahi and H. Baseri

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200324

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of temperatures, pressures, and times on the supercritical CO2 regeneration of activated carbon loaded with cyclo-hexane were investigated. The process of regeneration was mathematically modeled via dynamic extraction by solving the differential material balances. The achievable maximum yield of regeneration was 68 % at 55 °C and 140 bar.

    14. High-Throughput T-Jets Mixers: An Innovative Scale-Up Concept (pages 323–331)

      M. A. Sultan, K. Krupa, C. P. Fonte, M. I. Nunes, M. M. Dias, J. C. B. Lopes and R. J. Santos

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200141

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new procedure is proposed to scale up T-jets mixers, based on the identification of a noncritical dimension that can be increased without changing the mixing scales. This novel scale-up does not affect micromixing and represents a favorable alternative to the traditional numbering-up of microreactors to increase the throughput of an installation.

    15. Novel Hollow Titania Spheres-Chitosan Hybrid Membranes with High Isopropanol Dehydration Performance (pages 332–338)

      G. Liu, Z. Jiang, Y. Wang and D. Yang

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200353

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The preparation and application of innovative organic-inorganic hybrid membranes using hollow hTiO2 spheres as inorganic filler and chitosan (CS) as polymer matrix are described for isopropanol dehydration. A hTiO2(6)-CS/polyacrylonitrile composite membrane offered the best pervaporation performance. This kind of composite membranes may find promising applications in the dehydration of alcohols.

    16. ansa-Zirconocenes with Bridge-tethered Donors: Synthesis and Application as Catalysts in Solution Polymerization of Ethylene (pages 339–346)

      A. Rau, T. Wieczorek, H. Dornik and G. Luft

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200393

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The main aim of the work was to generate ethylene polymers having bimodal weight distributions. For this purpose new ansa-zirconocenes with functional side chains tethered to the Si-bridge were synthesized. They were activated by methylaluminoxane and used in solution polymerization. Experiments using Me2SiCp2ZrCl2 formed products with unimodal weight distributions, indicating that the functionalized side chains of the new catalysts cause bimodal weight distributions.

    17. Prediction of Release Characteristics of Film-Coated Urea from Structure Characterization Data of the Film (pages 347–354)

      R. Lan, G. Wang, L. Yang, T.-J. Wang, C. Kan and Y. Jin

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200459

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A structure model of spray coating film was built, and it can be used to calculate the permeability coefficients of films using its structure parameters. The relationship between film structure, permeability coefficients of the film, and release characteristics of the coated urea were modeled for efficiently predicting the release characteristics.

    18. Setup and Energetic Considerations for Three Advanced Oxidation Reactors Treating Organic Compounds (pages 355–361)

      M. Ureña de Vivanco, M. Rajab, C. Heim, T. Letzel and B. Helmreich

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200478

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three advanced oxidation reactors, i.e., UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton reaction, and conductive diamond electrolysis, were built for the elimination of persistent organic pollutants and tested for their capacity to discolor indigo carmine. An energetic analysis on total energy consumption and effective electrical consumption after subtraction of non-process-related costs is performed.

  8. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Overview Contents: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 1–2/2013 (page 363)

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390005

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