Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 6

Special Issue: Micro Flow Processes

June, 2013

Volume 36, Issue 6

Pages 875–1083

Issue edited by: Volker Hessel, Qi Wang

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
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      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 6/2013

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390025

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 6/2013

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390026

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
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  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
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      Micro(reactor)cosmos – still Expanding into the Engineering Universe (page 883)

      Volker Hessel and Qi Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201390029

  6. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
  7. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. Why is Micro Segmented Flow Particularly Promising for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials? (pages 887–899)

      J. M. Köhler, S. Li and A. Knauer

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200695

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The specific advantages of the application of micro segmented flow in continuous-flow synthesis of nanoparticles and the potential for development of new nanomaterials are discussed. Concepts of process design and examples demonstrate the power of this technique for generation of nanoparticles of high homogeneity and for tuning of particle properties.

  8. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. Future Production Concepts in the Chemical Industry: Modular – Small-Scale – Continuous (pages 900–910)

      T. Bieringer, S. Buchholz and N. Kockmann

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200631

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      Future chemical production is determined by globalized, volatile markets with increased quality demand for speciality products. Various aspects of innovative small- and medium-scale production concepts in lab, pilot plant as well as production scale are discussed. After giving an overview of the current state-of-the-art, a modular scale-up and platform concept is explained.

    2. Life Cycle Assessment in Chemical and Micro Reaction Engineering (pages 911–920)

      E. Zschieschang, P. Pfeifer and L. Schebek

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200635

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      Micro process engineering has initiated a rethinking in process design within the field of chemical process engineering. In order to demonstrate how these changes in process design influence the use of life cycle assessment (LCA), the available literature on LCA in early R&D for conventional chemical and micro reaction engineering is reviewed.

    3. Continuous Micro Liquid-Liquid Extraction (pages 921–936)

      N. Assmann, A. Ładosz and P. Rudolf von Rohr

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200557

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      Continuous microfluidics experienced a steep rise in attention during the last two decades and many unit operations have successfully been adapted to microreactors. Especially liquid-liquid extraction benefits from the small dimensions as the short molecular diffusion distance and large specific interfacial area in microchannels are advantageous for effective liquid/liquid contacting.

    4. State of the Art of Mini/Micro Jet Reactors (pages 937–949)

      R. J. Santos and M. A. Sultan

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200678

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      With the introduction of microreactors, a new type of prismatic opposed-jets reactors, the so-called T-jets reactors, have found wide-spread application. The state of the art concerning mixing in confined impinging jets reactors and T-jets reactors is described. Attempts to scale up opposed-jets reactors without compromising mixing times are analyzed.

  9. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. Separation, Hydrodynamics, and Joule Heating Effects in Continuous Annular Electrochromatography (pages 950–958)

      R. Laskowski and H.-J. Bart

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200560

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      The preparative electro-chromatography combines the advantages of electrophoresis and chromatography in one process step. Due to the improved separation efficiency it is possible to separate active pharmaceutical ingredients and chemically similar substances. A newly developed preparative prototype based on the annular chromatographic principle was tested under continuous process conditions.

    2. Continuous Cold without Cryogenic Consumables: Development of a Convenient Laboratory Tool for Low-Temperature Flow Processes (pages 959–967)

      D. L. Browne, B. H. Harji and S. V. Ley

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200581

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      In continuous-flow chemical processing techniques, the use of cryogenic consumables to cool reactions is impractical on scale or over extended reaction times. A solution to the problem is described with the development of a convenient laboratory device.

    3. Basic Design Concept of a Microreactor for Isothermal Operation Including Heat Conductivity (pages 968–974)

      T. Fukuda, M. Sawada, T. Maki and K. Mae

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200634

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      A method is proposed for designing microreactors for isothermal operation with highly exothermic or endothermic reactions. The proposed design method is based on the relationship between the fluid conditions and the heat properties. The contour charts produced describe the required operational conditions, which were validated via computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    4. Slug Flow of Ionic Liquids in Capillary Microcontactors: Fluid Dynamic Intensification for Solvent Extraction (pages 975–984)

      F. Scheiff, A. Holbach and D. W. Agar

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200600

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      Liquid-liquid extraction provides a cost-effective and energy-efficient separation technology for liquids. The feasibility of microextraction in slug-flow microcontactors using hydrophilic ionic liquid solvents for extraction from organic media is specified in terms of type of liquid and flow rate. Guidelines for the fluid dynamic enhancement of liquid-liquid mass transfer are provided.

    5. An Experimental Study of Copper Extraction Characteristics in a T-Junction Microchannel (pages 985–992)

      L. Yang, Y. Zhao, Y. Su and G. Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200464

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      High efficiency and short extraction time are two ultimate goals pursued in the liquid-liquid extraction industry. Due to its extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and the short transport path, the microchannel reactor is widely used for process intensification. The extraction process of copper is experimentally investigated in a T-junction microchannel reactor.

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      Evaluation of Heat Transfer on Micro-Structured Surfaces Based on Entropy Production (pages 993–1000)

      K. Jasch and S. Scholl

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200582

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      Microstructures with defined shape, dimensions, and arrangement were assessed in terms of their capability to improve convective heat transfer in microchannels. Overall efficiencies were determined experi-mentally and by computational fluid dynamics. The thermal efficiency index and the irreversible entropy generation were used as evaluation criteria.

    7. Packed-Bed Microreactor for Continuous-Flow Adipic Acid Synthesis from Cyclohexene and Hydrogen Peroxide (pages 1001–1009)

      M. Shang, T. Noël, Q. Wang and V. Hessel

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200703

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel microflow process is described for the synthesis of adipic acid by means of direct oxidation of cyclohexene by hydrogen peroxide in a continuous-flow packed-bed microreactor. Parametric process optimization of appropriate reaction conditions is performed and applied. This direct oxidation process has a great potential in microreactor technology.

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      Kolbe-Schmitt Flow Synthesis in Aqueous Solution – From Lab Capillary Reactor to Pilot Plant (pages 1010–1016)

      U. Krtschil, V. Hessel, H.-J. Kost and D. Reinhard

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Kolbe-Schmitt synthesis is a traditionally used carboxylation reaction for phenolic cores which enables the introduction of a carboxylic group by an electrophilic substitution. Process intensification results were transferred from the lab scale to pilot scale without a considerable loss of performance.

    9. Microreactors and CFD as Tools for Biocatalysis Reactor Design: A case study (pages 1017–1026)

      V. K. Bodla, R. Seerup, U. Krühne, J. M. Woodley and K. V. Gernaey

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200667

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      The combination of microreactor technology and CFD is used to gain process understanding of the diffusional properties of the substrate and product of a biocatalytic reaction. Such knowledge is then applied to design reactor configurations. It has been demonstrated that this kind of knowledge is crucial for the choice and design of reactors.

    10. Preparation and Control of the Size Distribution of Zirconia Nanoparticles in a Concentric-Axle Dual-Pipe Microreactor (pages 1027–1032)

      T. Maki, J.-I. Kitada and K. Mae

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200627

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      Experiments were performed to form zirconia fine particles using a concentric microreactor with an axle dual pipe. The particle size of zirconia particles was controlled by changing the mean residence time and the concentrations of zirconium tetrabutoxide and water in the presence of a dispersant. Primary nucleation and particle growth can be independently and precisely controlled.

    11. Optimization of Wash-Coating Slurries as Catalyst Carrier for Screen Printing into Microstructured Reactors (pages 1033–1041)

      H. Pennemann, M. Dobra, M. Wichert and G. Kolb

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200637

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      For deposition of catalyst coatings in microchannels by wash-coating, a novel low-cost screen printing procedure was developed which is suited for mass production. Rheological properties and adherence of catalyst suspensions were optimized, allowing the successful implementation of screen printing without impairing the catalytic performance.

    12. Highly Controlled Gas/Liquid Processes in a Continuous Lab-Scale Device (pages 1042–1046)

      J. J. F. van Gool, S. A. M. W. van den Broek, R. M. Ripken, P. J. Nieuwland, K. Koch and F. P. J. T. Rutjes

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200553

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      Gas-permeable membrane-based reactors offer safe handling of gases in a continuous-flow system. A prototype of a gas/liquid system was constructed to introduce gas in a microreactor. An integrated gas flow controller and inline FTIR analysis were used to safely handle the gas. Carboxylation of a Grignard reagent with CO2 served as a nonhazardous model reaction.

    13. Generating Gas-Liquid-Liquid Three-Phase Microflows in a Cross-Junction Microchannel Device (pages 1047–1060)

      K. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Qin, G. Luo and T. Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200561

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The generation of gas-liquid-liquid three-phase microflows in a cross-junction microchannel is investigated by testing different working systems with variations of three-phase flow rates, viscosities, and interfacial tensions. Volume variations and size distributions of bubbles and droplets are indicated according to their respective generation mechanisms.

    14. Strategies for Using Microreactors and Flow Chemistry: Drivers and Tools (pages 1061–1066)

      D. Kirschneck

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200578

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      Problems that can be solved by application of continuous flow processing, microreactors, or other intensification technologies are characterized by an innovative concept. Techniques and equipment presently available for developing intensified processes are summarized and examples for their successful implementation in the engineering of chemical plants are described.

    15. Analysis of Velocity Uniformity in a Single Microchannel Plate with Rectangular Manifolds at Different Entrance Velocities (pages 1067–1074)

      M. Pan, X. Shao and L. Liang

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200496

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The flow uniformity of parallel microchannels influences the reaction performance. The effects of structural parameters and entrance velocities on the velocity distribution in a microchannel plate with rectangular manifolds are investigated by a 3D CFD model in order to enhance the design and optimization process for micro-channel plates. Relevant factors for a uniform flow distribution are evaluated.

  10. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. Application of Ultrasound in a Micro Heat Exchanger for Crystallization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (pages 1075–1079)

      M. Schoenitz, S. Joseph, H. Bunjes and S. Scholl

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200606

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As an alternative approach to thermal treatment, ultrasound during batch-wise and continuous crystallization of solid lipid nanoparticles is applied. The overlapping effects of ultrasound and the accompanying temperature increase in batch processing are separated using a modified micro heat exchanger with the option for inline ultrasonic treatment.

  11. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Essay
    9. Reviews
    10. Research Articles
    11. Communication
    12. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content

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