Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 10

October, 2014

Volume 37, Issue 10

Pages 1623–1819

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 10/2014

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490050

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 10/2014

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490051

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 10/2014 (page 1623)

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490052

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 10/2014 (pages 1624–1630)

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490053

  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 10/2014 (pages 1632–1633)

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490054

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Coal Oxidation under Mild Conditions: Current Status and Applications (pages 1635–1644)

      Jianglong Yu, Yu Jiang, Arash Tahmasebi, Yanna Han, Xianchun Li, John Lucas and Terry Wall

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300651

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In recent years, coal oxidation under mild conditions in terms of relatively low temperatures and normal pressure has drawn increasing attention. A critical review on different methods of coal oxidation may advance the understanding of the oxidation mechanisms and identify existing issues of applying such techniques in both comprehending the coal molecular structure and production of organic chemicals.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Microwave Setup Design for Continuous Fine-Chemicals Synthesis (pages 1645–1653)

      Narendra G. Patil, Faysal Benaskar, Evgeny V. Rebrov, Jan Meuldijk, Lumbertus A. Hulshof†, Volker Hessel and Jaap C. Schouten

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400118

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As an effort towards designing a microwave-heated continuous fine-chemicals production plant, the suitability of two state-of-the-art, mono- and multimode microwave equipment types was elucidated. Based on the feasibility study, a conceptual design of a microwave setup, consisting of four cavities with all the required flexibility and applicability, was realized and evaluated for its heating performance.

    2. High-Speed Camera-Based Analysis of the Lithium Ceramic Pebble Fabrication Process (pages 1654–1662)

      Patrick Waibel, Jörg Matthes, Oliver Leys, Matthias Kolb, Hubert B. Keller and Regina Knitter

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300769

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regarding the melt-based fabrication of lithium ceramic pebbles, a high-speed camera-based method enabling the analysis of the melt jet and the droplets directly in their formation phase is presented. The image-based extraction of individual droplet properties such as dynamic changes or agglomerations provided deeper insights into the melt-based fabrication process.

    3. Selection of Biphasic Liquid Systems in Liquid-Liquid Chromatography Using Predictive Thermodynamic Models (pages 1663–1674)

      Andreas Frey, Elisabeth Hopmann and Mirjana Minceva

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400234

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      An a priori approach for the selection of biphasic solvent systems for liquid-liquid chromatographic separations is presented. The only needed information for screening and selection of the biphasic liquid system with the help of the predictive thermodynamic models UNIFAC and COSMO-RS is the molecular structure of the solvents and solutes to be separated. The experimental effort for the system selection is drastically reduced.

    4. Energy Minimization in Cryogenic Packed Beds during Purification of Natural Gas with High CO2 Content (pages 1675–1685)

      Abulhassan Ali, Khuram Maqsood, Nor Syahera, Azmi B. M. Shariff and Saibal Ganguly

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400215

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      The cryogenic separation technology has been known for several decades. However, this technology was not extensively studied due to the common perception of high expected cooling duty. To bridge the gap in existing literature on cryogenic packed beds, systematic experiments on the effect of engineering parameters during purification of natural gas with high CO2 contents were performed.

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      Integration of Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction into Downstream Processing (pages 1686–1696)

      Jan Eggersgluess, Tim Wellsandt and Jochen Strube

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Successful integration into downstream processing requires a reliable prediction of the process performance in an early development stage. Aqueous-two-phase extraction (ATPE) modeling studies and comparison with experimental data for a mini-plant extraction column are provided. Economic evaluation between ATPE and Protein A chromatography indicates cost-saving factors of up to five-fold for ATPE.

    6. Numerical Investigation of Three-Dimensional Bubble Column Flows: A Detached Eddy Simulation Approach (pages 1697–1704)

      Rao M. A. Masood and Antonio Delgado

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bubble columns are used in chemical, biochemical, metallurgical, and petrochemical industries. To investigate the bubbly flows, a detached eddy simulation (DES) model employing the Euler-Euler simulations of gas liquid flow in a square cross-sectioned bubble column was investigated. In comparison to the k-ϵ model, it resolved the flow with much more detail and captured more dynamic bubble plum.

    7. CFD Modeling of a Carbonation Reactor with a K-Based Dry Sorbent for CO2 Capture (pages 1705–1712)

      Guangbin Yu, Bing Dai, Juhui Chen, Di Liu, Xiaoyang Yu, Junpeng Shao and Lei Zhao

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400145

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CO2 removal from flue gas with regenerable dry solid sorbents is a promising possibility to capture CO2. Such a process in a carbonation reactor is investigated with a K-based dry sorbent by CFD simulation. A multiscale drag coefficient model is integrated into the two-fluid model to describe the cluster effects. Reactor height and operating pressure have a great impact on CO2 removal.

    8. Energy-Efficient Size Reduction Technology for Wet Fibrous Biomass Treatment in Industrial Biofuel Technologies (pages 1713–1720)

      Lukas Kratky and Tomas Jirout

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400243

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      The energy requirement of a size reduction technology is primarily dependent on the energy demand of the disintegration unit. Three industrial size reduction technologies were designed to comminute wet fibrous biomass. The least energy-demanding technology is composed of a new, fully developed retting mill with supplementary equipment.

    9. Effect of Particle Shape on Inline Particle Size Measurement Techniques (pages 1721–1728)

      Maryam Mostafavi, Sandra Petersen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400212

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Powerful sensor technologies to analyze suspension density and mean particle size in crystallization processes inline and in real time are ultrasound, 3D optical reflectance measurement, and focused-beam reflectance measurement techniques. Measurement principles, advantages and disadvantages as well as the different sensitivities of these techniques with respect to the shape of particles are evaluated and discussed.

    10. Design and Simulation of a Green Chromate Compound Production Process (pages 1729–1735)

      Jing Song, Jing-Kui Qu, Jing-Cong Liu, Fei Ma and Tao Qi

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400123

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A green chromate compound production process was simulated to gain an overall understanding of the process. The phase equilibrium data of a key system were calculated and based on the obtained phase diagrams, the green process was then designed. The calculated mass and energy balances provide valuable information for the implementation and industrialization of the process.

    11. Automatic Low-Cost Method to Determine the Solubility of Liquid-Liquid Mixtures by Continuous-Flow Cloud Point Titration (pages 1736–1740)

      Andrew P. Williamson and Johannes Kiefer

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400091

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      A new analytical technique for measuring the solubility of liquid-liquid systems using a continuous-flow cloud point titration approach based on an LED and a webcam represents a fast and accurate method that can be realized as a fully automatic instrument with low-cost components. The setup provides results virtually identical to literature data with established techniques and is suitable for academic, industrial, and educational purposes.

    12. Biosorption of Trivalent Chromium from Wastewater: An Approach towards Green Chemistry (pages 1741–1750)

      James Kanagaraj, Thamizharasan Senthilvelan, Ramesh C. Panda, Rathinam Aravindhan and Asit B. Mandal

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201200716

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chromium in wastewater from various industries causes environmental toxicity and pollution. An effective biosorption method using a bacterial culture of Bacillus pumilus was developed for the removal of chromium from wastewater. A mathematical model representing the biosorption kinetics was formulated, supporting the Langmuir isotherm for the adsorption of chromium.

    13. Improvement of a Gas Intake Device and a Gas Mixing Study in a Large-Scale Vessel (pages 1751–1756)

      Chunhua Bai, Baolong Fan and Bin Li

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400109

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gas mixing in large-scale reactors is an important field in chemical engineering. A gas intake device matching the size of a large-scale reaction vessel was designed. The inside/outside pressure difference of the vessel was identified as an important factor influencing the mixing effect. The optimum size of the gas intake device was determined by numerical simulations and experimental results.

    14. Effects of Contamination and Power-Law Fluid Viscosity on Heat Transfer Phenomena of Spherical Bubbles (pages 1757–1764)

      Venkata Swamy Nalajala and Nanda Kishore

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      When a contaminated continuous liquid obeys the power-law of non-Newtonian behavior, to date analogous information is not available. Heat transfer phenomena of partially contaminated spherical bubbles are numerically investigated applying the stagnant spherical cap model over wide ranges of pertinent conditions by solving the governing conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy via a segregated approach.

    15. Comparative Study on Thermodynamic Analysis of CO2 Utilization Reactions (pages 1765–1777)

      Anang Swapnesh, Vimal C. Srivastava and Indra D. Mall

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400157

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Comparative thermodynamic analysis of dimethyl ether synthesis and methane synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation reactions as well as dry reforming of methane was performed by Gibbs' free energy minimization. Influences of temperature, pressure, and feed compositions on conversion, yield, and selectivity were evaluated. Based on the results, the optimal process for CO2 utilization could be predicted.

    16. Fabrication of Palladium Membranes Supported on a Silicalite-1 Zeolite-Modified Alumina Tube for Hydrogen Separation (pages 1778–1786)

      Yu Guo, Hongmei Wu, Lidai Zhou, Zhenbin Zhang, Haiou Liu and Xiongfu Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300830

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Membrane techniques for H2 separation are increasingly demanded in chemical and petrochemical industries. Thin and dense palladium membranes were prepared on macroporous α-alumina tubes by electroless plating using silicalite-1 zeolite as the intermediate and diffusion barrier layer. The excellent hydrogen permeability and stability allow the composite membrane to act as membrane reactor for H2 separation.

    17. Enriched-Air Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel in a Fluidized Bed: Effect of Gasifying Conditions and Bed Materials (pages 1787–1796)

      Miaomiao Niu, Yaji Huang, Baosheng Jin, Yu Sun and Xinye Wang

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400167

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluidized-bed gasification of refuse-derived fuel offers a promising way for energy recovery and waste treatment. In the two investigated bed materials, increases in temperature and oxygen percentage led to better gasification performance. Gasification in a bed of calcined dolomite was more stable and showed better results compared to high-alumina bauxit.

    18. Mass Transfer Reaction Kinetics of β-Isophorone Oxidation by Air in an Agitator Bubbling Reactor (pages 1797–1804)

      Hong Yin, Caiping Sheng, Zhirong Chen, Shenfeng Yuan, Haoran Li and Jun Mei

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Since to date the mass transfer reaction process of β-isophorone (β-IP) oxidation by air has been only rarely reported, the kinetics of this reaction in a lab-scale agitator bubbling reactor is analyzed. A correlation equation of gas phase volumetric mass transfer coefficients is defined, providing a valuable theoretical basis for industrial design of a β-IP oxidation reactor.

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      Design Strategies for Integrated β-Galactosidase Purification Processes (pages 1805–1812)

      Ailton C. Lemes, Juliana Ribeiro Machado, Marcela Lazzare Brites, Marco Di Luccio and Susana Juliano Kalil

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300433

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As an alternative to the usual primary purification steps, a strategy for β-galactosidase was established from purification methods amenable to scale-up, allowing the application of the enzyme in enzymatic hydrolysis processes. The proposed process design, involving aqueous two-phase system, diafiltration, ion exchange, and diafiltration/ultrafiltration, led to a high purification factor and recovery of the enzyme.

  8. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. Prediction of Phase Split in Horizontal T-Junctions: Revisited (pages 1813–1816)

      Dhurjati P. Chakrabarti

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300848

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-phase flow through a T-junction can cause a major problem of operation and control in oil and gas production due to misdistribution of the phases. Based on previously studied models, the prediction of liquid–liquid two-phase flow at a horizontal dividing T-junction is re-investigated. Attempts are made to predict the split for liquid–liquid systems by including energy minimization.

  9. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communication
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Overview Contents: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 10/2014 (page 1819)

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490055

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