Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 12

December, 2014

Volume 37, Issue 12

Pages 1999–2199

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2014

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490063

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2014

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490064

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2014 (page 1999)

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490065

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2014 (pages 2000–2006)

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490066

  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 12/2014 (pages 2008–2009)

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490067

  6. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. Preparation, Sedimentation, and Agglomeration of Nanofluids (pages 2011–2021)

      Suhaib Umer Ilyas, Rajashekhar Pendyala and Narahari Marneni

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400268

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      Importance of nanofluids has increased significantly due to their unique potential for various applications in different fields. The dispersion behavior of nanoparticles in liquids is a key characteristic for preparation of stable nanofluids. Since knowledge of the settling behavior of nanoparticles is crucial for optimizing the degree of stability, recent progress on preparation and stability of nanofluids is reviewed.

    2. Replacement of CH4 in Hydrate in Porous Sediments with Liquid CO2 Injection (pages 2022–2029)

      Yu Zhang, Li-Jun Xiong, Xiao-Sen Li, Zhao-Yang Chen and Chun-Gang Xu

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300840

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      Since kinetic data for CH4–CO2 replacement in porous sediments by liquid CO2 are still insufficient, experiments were performed under varying temperature and pressure conditions. The initial pressure has only a minor impact on the replacement rate. Reduced temperature leads to a lower replacement rate which is mainly affected by the fugacity difference of the CH4 hydrate decomposition and CO2 hydrate formation.

    3. Particle Size Measurement of Metallic Iron in Reduced Materials Based on Optical Image Analysis (pages 2030–2036)

      Yongsheng Sun, Yuexin Han, Peng Gao and Yufan Mu

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300723

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      Quantitative analysis of metallic iron particle size plays an important role in assessing the coal-based reduction process of refractory iron ores. According to the characterization of metallic iron particles, a powerful method is proposed to measure the size of metallic iron particles in reduced materials by optical image analysis. The obtained data was analyzed based on frequency and cumulative distribution.

    4. A Comprehensive Kinetic Study of the Reaction of SO2 with CaO by the Random Pore Model (pages 2037–2046)

      Hadi Moshiri, Bahram Nasernejad, Habib Ale Ebrahim and Mahboobeh Taheri

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400285

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      For mathematical modeling of the SO2 removal reaction by CaO, the random pore model was applied to predict the reaction performance. The concentration dependency of this reaction was determined and the inherent rate constants were evaluated. Additionally, the product layer diffusivity was evaluated by comparing whole experimental conversion-time profiles with the model predictions.

    5. Prediction of Air Specific Heat Ratios at Elevated Pressures Using a Novel Modeling Approach (pages 2047–2055)

      Arash Kamari, Amir H. Mohammadi, Alireza Bahadori and Sohrab Zendehboudi

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400261

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      An accurate and efficient model based on least-squares support vector machines is developed for the determination of the air specific heat ratio at elevated pressures. The proposed model is able to predict the specific heat ratio with an accuracy adequate for many practical applications. The method is compared to previously published correlations and demonstrates better performance.

    6. A Stochastic Model for Liquid Dispersion in a Trickle-Bed Reactor (pages 2056–2064)

      Peng Liu, Zi-Bin Huang, Jun Zhu, Kun Yu and Zhen-Min Cheng

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400284

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      Liquid dispersion is a critical parameter in designing trickle-bed reactors. A stochastic model is developed to describe the liquid radial dispersion, which has conventionally been modeled by the effective diffusion model. Compared with the effective diffusion model, the stochastic model shows better agreement with the experimental data.

    7. Hydrodynamic-Analogy-Based Modeling Approach for Distillative Separation of Organic Systems with Elevated Viscosity (pages 2065–2072)

      Tim S. Wolf, Christian Bradtmöller, Stephan Scholl and Eugeny Y. Kenig

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400372

      The influence of elevated liquid viscosity on the distillative separation of organic systems in structured packed columns is investigated using a modeling approach based on hydrodynamic analogies. Simulated separation efficiencies are compared to the results of independent experiments at different operating pressures and gas loads for two test systems.

    8. Droplet Size Distribution Obtained by Atomization with Two-Fluid Nozzles in a Spray Dryer (pages 2073–2084)

      Aleksandra Sander and Tomislav Penović

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400185

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      Spray drying is a unique drying process since formation of solid phase and drying occur simultaneously. Droplet size distribution produced by a two-fluid nozzle during spray drying of bismuth molybdate suspension was evaluated simply from the particle size distribution. The proposed methodology enables prediction of the particle size distribution obtained by spray drying.

    9. Energy Efficiency Hierarchy Evaluation Based on Data Envelopment Analysis and its Application in a Petrochemical Process (pages 2085–2095)

      Yongming Han and Zhiqiang Geng

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300853

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      Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is widely used for energy efficiency evaluation of enterprise plants. A novel approach based on an improved analytic hierarchy process method and DEA model with linear programming is proposed and verified by real energy data of practical ethylene plants. This combination enables reducing energy consumption and improving energy efficiency in an ethylene production system.

    10. Bubble Splitting in a Pseudo-2D Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed for Geldart B-Type Particles (pages 2096–2102)

      Salman Movahedirad, Asghar Molaei Dehkordi, Esmaeel Abbaszade Molaei, Mehdi Haghi, Mohammad Banaei and Johannes A. M. Kuipers

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300565

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      The behavior of gas bubbles plays a key role in heat- and mass-transfer operations in fluidized beds. Bubble splitting for Geldart B-type particles under varying conditions was investigated in a pseudo-2D gas-solid fluidized bed by digital image analysis. The quantitative results can facilitate the development of new breakage models for bubbly fluidized beds and are particularly relevant for discrete bubble modeling.

    11. Promotion of Chemical Reactions by a Grid in a Shear Mixing Layer (pages 2103–2108)

      Yasumasa Ito, Yasuhiko Sakai and Kouji Nagata

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300835

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      Installation of a turbulence-generating grid is advantageous to promote fluid mixing and chemical reaction in a free shear flow in which the reactive fluids are introduced under a nonpremixed condition. Special attention is needed regarding the location of the grid to maximize the promotion effect since it could be better to install it in the downstream region rather than the upstream region.

    12. Numerical Simulation of Particle Segregation in Vibration Fluidized Beds (pages 2109–2115)

      Liyan Sun, Feixiang Zhao, Qinghong Zhang, Dan Li and Huilin Lu

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400158

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      The impact of vibration on gas phase- and particle flow is not yet clarified due to the complex motion of particles in vibrated fluidized beds. Discrete particle simulation is used to investigate the segregation behavior of binary mixtures in a fluidized bed. The effect of vibration parameters and suitable operating conditions for segregation, particle distribution, and particle motion are evaluated.

    13. Strategy for Scaling-up of a Microsieve Dispersion Reactor (pages 2116–2122)

      Kai Wang, Yangcheng Lu and Guangsheng Luo

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400296

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      For industrial applications of microreactors, more flexible and economic scaling-up strategies are required. A scale-up approach for a microsieve dispersion reactor is proposed, combining similarity-up and numbering-up of the core unit with CFD simulation-based device structure optimization. Low fabrication cost, low pressure drop, and excellent main product selectivity can be achieved by this strategy.

    14. Mathematical Modeling of Ocimum basilicum L. Supercritical CO2 Extraction (pages 2123–2128)

      Zoran Zeković, Snežana Filip, Senka Vidović, Stela Jokić and Sandra Svilović

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400322

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      Supercritical fluid extraction is a promising alternative to steam distillation and solvent extraction of flavor and fragrance compounds from natural materials. The pressure and temperature effect on supercritical extraction of Ocimum basilicum L. was analyzed using different mathematical models for fast optimization and calculation of the extraction conditions and to simulate the overall extraction curves.

    15. Cu/Ni-Loaded CeO2-ZrO2 Catalyst for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction: Effects of Loaded Metals and CeO2 Addition (pages 2129–2134)

      Busaya Chamnankid, Karin Föttinger, Günther Rupprechter and Paisan Kongkachuichay

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300869

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      The water-gas shift reaction (WGS), as an alternative way to produce H2 and convert poisonous CO into CO2, was carried out using Cu and Ni loaded onto CeO2-ZrO2 as catalysts. The Ni-loaded catalysts exhibited higher CO conversion at high temperature while the Cu-loaded catalysts performed better at low temperature. The WGS reaction was found to occur via the formation of formate species.

    16. Coal Pyrolysis in a Laboratory-Scale Two-Stage Reactor: Catalytic Upgrading of Pyrolytic Vapors (pages 2135–2142)

      Xiaomin Gong, Ze Wang, Songgeng Li, Wenli Song and Weigang Lin

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300748

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-stage catalytic coal pyrolysis was studied to directly upgrade the pyrolytic vapors. In the presence of the catalysts Ce/Zr/Ni and Ce/Zr/Ni/Zn, benzenes, aliphates, and phenols were significantly increased in the tar, at the expense of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed.

    17. A Kinetic Study of Sunflower Oil Methanolysis Catalyzed by Barium Hydroxide (pages 2143–2151)

      Olivera S. Stamenković, Zoran B. Todorović and Vlada B. Veljković

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300685

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      Biodiesel is usually obtained by methanolysis of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils. Conventionally, methanolysis reaction occurs in the presence of homogeneous, soluble catalysts. Barium hydroxide possesses a high catalytic activity for sunflower oil methanolysis. Under optimum reaction conditions, a very high fatty acid methyl ester content is obtained within few minutes.

    18. Simulation Studies on Growth and Death of Microorganisms Using the Oil-Degrading Bacteria Petrotoga sp. (pages 2152–2164)

      Amin Daryasafar, Ehsan Ganji Azad, Ali Khorram Ghahfarokhi and Seyyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400129

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      Microbial-enhanced oil recovery is a tertiary technique influenced by the biological activities of microorganisms. Since the exact mechanism of growth and death of microorganisms is uncertain, prediction of bacterial concentration under different conditions is still a problem. Three suitable models were developed for predicting the growth and death of microorganisms using the oil-degrading bacteria Petrotoga sp.

    19. An Improved Correlation of the Mean Drop Size in a Modified Scheibel Extraction Column (pages 2165–2174)

      Shenfeng Yuan, Shuangfeng Jin, Zhirong Chen, Yanna Yuan and Hong Yin

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300873

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      In liquid-liquid extraction columns, the drop size affects the dispersed-phase holdup, residence time, and throughputs. The drop size in a five-stage modified Scheibel extraction column was measured as a function of geometry, operating conditions, and physical properties of a liquid-liquid system with no mass transfer. An improved correlation of the mean drop size in this column is presented.

    20. Mathematical Modeling and Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Reactive Absorption of H2S (pages 2175–2184)

      Fatemeh Bashipour, Saied Nouri Khorasani and Amir Rahimi

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400288

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      A modified rate-based mathematical model was developed and evaluated in order to predict the removal efficiency of H2S in a packed-bed column with NaOH and chemical oxidant solutions as absorbents. Results of the validated model were adapted to a genetic algorithm to calculate optimal operating variables. Among the most effective operation parameters the initial pH of the alkaline solution was determined.

    21. Mechanism of Flue Gas Desulfurization with Sodium Phosphate Solution (pages 2185–2189)

      Zhiguo Yuan, Wei Song, Youzhi Liu, Xiaofeng Kang and Bo Peng

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400301

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      Desulfurization by sodium phosphate solution utilizes the multiple buffer ability of phosphate radicals. The buffer capacities of phosphate solution and a multiple buffer system of phosphoric acid/sulfurous acid/sodium salts are theoretically calculated and validated by experiments in order to provide theoretical instructions for experiments and industrial application of regenerative flue gas desulfurization.

  7. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. Multiple Analysis in a Reactive Distillation Column for the Synthesis of tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (pages 2190–2195)

      Ashley Ramkissoon, Roshan Moonisar, Divya Maraj and Carmen Riverol

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400358

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      tert-Amyl methyl ether (TAME) possesses advantageous characteristics for gasoline blending. TAME production by reactive distillation was simulated for generating the maximum purity. Various parameters within the reactive distillation column were expected to effectively influence the product purity. The improved design could be adapted to industrial scale.

  8. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    8. Communication
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Overview Contents: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 12/2014 (page 2199)

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490068

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