Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 8

Special Issue: Industrial Crystallization

August, 2014

Volume 37, Issue 8

Pages 1271–1431

Issue edited by: Haiyan Qu, Jukka Rantanen, Joachim Ulrich

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
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      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2014

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490038

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2014

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490039

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2014 (page 1271)

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490040

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2014 (pages 1272–1278)

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490041

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Industrial Crystallization (page 1279)

      Haiyan Qu, Jukka Rantanen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490042

  6. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2014 (pages 1280–1281)

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490043

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. In Situ Growth Measurements of Sodium Sulfate during Cooling Crystallization (pages 1283–1290)

      Tim Egan, Marcos Rodriguez-Pascual and Alison Lewis

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400098

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      Cooling crystallization provides a potential treatment solution for salt recovery from hypersaline brine streams. Combined rainbow Schlieren deflectometry and liquid crystal thermography allowed the decoupling of concentration and temperature effects and were applied as in situ, non-intrusive techniques during crystallization of sodium sulfate from aqueous solution.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Designing Printable Medicinal Products: Solvent System and Carrier-Substrate Screening (pages 1291–1296)

      Dhara Raijada, Natalja Genina, Daniela Fors, Erik Wisaeus, Jouko Peltonen, Jukka Rantanen and Niklas Sandler

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400209

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      More flexible yet robust manufacturing solutions are needed in the pharmaceutical industry. Novel engineering solutions for continuous manufacturing of flexible pharmaceutical products are discussed. Critical factors affecting the printing process and quality of the printable medicinal products are studied with piroxicam as model compound. Future directions highlighting the potential are evaluated.

    3. Crystallization of Piroxicam Solid Forms and the Effects of Additives (pages 1297–1304)

      Guangpu Liu, Thomas B. Hansen, Haiyan Qu, Mingshi Yang, Jari P. Pajander, Jukka Rantanen and Lars P. Christensen

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400206

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      Solid form selection can help improve the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug candidates. The relative stabilities of the anhydrous and monohydrate solid forms of piroxicam in ethanol/water mixtures were studied. The validity of the Hansen solubility parameter in the preliminary screening of additives for controlling the piroxicam solid form during crystallization is demonstrated.

    4. Raman, UV, NIR, and Mid-IR Spectroscopy with Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement in Monitoring Polymorphic Transformations (pages 1305–1313)

      Elena Simone, Ali N. Saleemi and Zoltan K. Nagy

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400203

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The most common techniques for in situ monitoring of polymorphic transformation are compared and evaluated. The proposed integrated approach which combines signals from two process analytical technology tools to include solid concentration in the calibration model of polymorphic composition can provide accurate calibration faster and with less material required.

    5. Effect of Operating Conditions on Ice Characteristics in Continuous Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (pages 1314–1320)

      Jemitias Chivavava, Marcos Rodriguez-Pascual and Alison E. Lewis

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400094

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effectiveness of eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) is directly dependent on size and morphology of the crystalline products. Supersaturation and residence time influence these product characteristics and were investigated in a continuous EFC process. Crystal size distribution and morphology during the crystallization process were evaluated by digital image processing.

    6. Scaling of Calcium Carbonate on the Exterior of Heated Surfaces in a Flow-Through Setup (pages 1321–1328)

      Margrethe Nergaard, Ralf Beck, Marion Seiersten and Jens-Petter Andreassen

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400121

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      Scaling is a complicated interplay where heat and mass transfer influence the crystallization process. Morphology and polymorphism of the scale structure was related to the scaling parameters supersaturation and temperature. Scale growth rates of aragonite were determined and the growth-front temperature estimated, relating the growth front kinetics to observed growth behavior.

    7. Mathematical Modeling of Chiral Symmetry Breaking due to Differences in Crystal Growth Kinetics (pages 1329–1339)

      Kittisak Suwannasang, Gerard Coquerel, Celine Rougeot and Adrian E. Flood

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400056

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      Deracemization using temperature cycles with fast racemization in the liquid phase of a suspension is a new process to convert a racemic suspension into an enantiopure suspension. The current work proposes and checks two models relating to growth and dissolution of the suspension, to confirm that these processes may be responsible for the deracemization.

    8. Determination of Pitzer Parameters for 1-1 Nitrate and 1-2 Sulfate Solutions from Freezing Point Data (pages 1340–1346)

      Mehdi Hasan and Marjatta Louhi-Kultanen

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400202

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      Thermodynamics models help in designing separation and purification processes such as eutectic freeze concentration. New values of Pitzer interaction parameters at 273.15 K derived from freezing point data are presented for nitrate and sulfate solutions. For some of the studied salt solutions, these parameters appear to interpret freezing point data more accurately than the thermodynamic models given in the literature.

    9. Mechanism of Process-Induced Salt-to-Free Base Transformation of Pharmaceutical Products (pages 1347–1352)

      Thomas B. Hansen and Haiyan Qu

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400204

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      The application of Raman spectroscopy to monitor procaine concentration with a very large concentration span was proven to be possible. In experiments with additives in wet massing, only MgO influenced the drug stability. Simply determining pHmax is not sufficient in order to determine the excipients that may be used without adverse effects in drug manufacturing.

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      Purification of Lysozyme from Protein Mixtures by Solvent-Freeze-Out Technology (pages 1353–1357)

      Xiaoxi Yu, Jingkang Wang and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300832

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      The new solvent-freeze-out (SFO) technology is an innovative, effective, and very promising method in protein crystallization. Purification of hen egg white lysozyme from a lysozyme/crude extract mixture was carried out by the SFO technology on laboratory scale. Tetragonal lysozyme crystals were obtained during the process, which were then verified by X-ray powder diffraction.

    11. Prevention of Solvent-Mediated Isomer Transfer of Carotenoids (pages 1358–1362)

      Franziska Kreißig, Christian Schäfer and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400021

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      Astaxanthin is an important feed supplement. The molecule itself is susceptible to various factors and/or substances resulting in isomerization and/or degradation. The production of AXT-containing products would be more economical if a higher stability could be ensured. Consequently, stability-enhancing additives were applied.

    12. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate (pages 1363–1368)

      Bing Han, Haiyan Qu, Harri Niemi, Zuoliang Sha and Marjatta Louhi-Kultanen

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300855

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      Solid samples from reaction crystallization of Mg(OH)2 and CO2 were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The univariate method based on the peak height ratio proved a suitable quantitative criterion for monitoring precipitation kinetics. The method reflects not only the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)2 but also the precipitation rate of MgCO3.

    13. Optimized Coating through Phase Separation in Tablets by Melt Crystallization (pages 1369–1375)

      Ahmed Abouzeid, Sandra Petersen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400013

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Applying melt crystallization in tableting simplifies the complex manufacturing procedure, resulting in power savings and less quality control requirements. The drop forming method is the direct laboratory-scale simulation process of the real tableting device. By cooling a molten-mixture drop, a full tablet is produced in just one thermodynamically controlled production step.

    14. Fast Dispersible Cocoa Tablets: A Case Study of Freeze-Casting Applied to Foods (pages 1376–1382)

      Phuong T. N. Nguyen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400032

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      Substances in fine powder form face agglomeration phenomena when they are to be dissolved or dispersed in a liquid. A tablet fulfilling the dissolution time and mechanical strength requirements for fast-dispersal tablets is achieved by controlling the temperature gradient and the freezing modes, and especially by adding a binder.

    15. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework (pages 1383–1392)

      Kresten T. Meisler, Nicolas von Solms, Krist V. Gernaey and Rafiqul Gani

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A generic modeling framework with kinetic model identification tools for crystallization modeling is presented to study crystallization kinetics of various systems. The advantages of systematically exploring the kinetics of multiple systems and employing a model library are highlighted. Morris screening is applied for model analysis and a possible reduction is discussed.

    16. Effect of Co-Grinding on Crystallinity of Clopidogrel Bisulfate (pages 1393–1398)

      Csaba Mártha, Orsolya Jójárt-Laczkovich and Piroska Szabó-Révész

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Major alterations can occur in the crystal structure of materials during co-grinding and the presence of the amorphous form may cause serious problems. Changes of crystallinity of a model powder mixture during a long-time co-grinding process were determined. Secondary H-bonds are formed between the molecules which can stabilize the molecularly disperse system in the amorphous phase.

    17. Spherulitic Growth of Gold Particles Precipitated from Aqueous Solution (pages 1399–1407)

      Lijuan Wang and Jens-Petter Andreassen

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400207

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      The control of size and morphology of crystalline materials requires understanding of the underlying growth mechanism. Spontaneous and seeded experiments were performed to investigate if the formation mechanism of gold polycrystalline particles precipitated from aqueous solution at room temperature is an assembly of nanoparticles or crystal growth.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. Application of In Situ Coating on a Two-Compound System (pages 1408–1412)

      Kristin Wendt, Sandra Petersen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In situ coating as alternative coating technology combines shaping and coating in only one process step. The classical nucleation techniques, ultrasound and seeding, were applied separately and in combination to initiate a controlled nucleation in drop-forming of xylitol-isomalt pastilles. A separation of both compounds by crystallization in the pastilles was achieved.

    2. Influence of Caffeine on the Crystallization Behavior of Sugar (pages 1413–1416)

      Stefanie Selbmann, Sandra Petersen and Joachim Ulrich

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300829

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To create new products for the food industry it is necessary to know the effect new additives can have on the product. As caffeine can be used in beverages as well as in candies, it was chosen as additive in a sugar solution. The influence of caffeine on crystallization of sugar in terms of metastable zone, crystal growth rate, and crystal shape is examined.

    3. Crystallization and Resolution of cis-Permethric Acid with Carbon Dioxide Antisolvent (pages 1417–1421)

      György Bánsághi, László Lőrincz, Imre Miklós Szilágyi, János Madarász and Edit Székely

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300718

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      The rising demand for chiral molecules requires an economically viable and environmentally safe production. Resolution of cis-permethric acid is realized by diastereomer salt precipitation using the gas antisolvent or supercritical antisolvent process. Diastereomeric excesses in one step exceed those reported in literature. Both methods yielded diastereomeric salts with excellent diastereoselectivity.

    4. Polyacrylic Acid-Assisted Crystallization Phenomena of Carbonate Crystals (pages 1422–1426)

      Hiroto Watamura, Yuko Sonobe and Izumi Hirasawa

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The application of carbonate crystals in the industry requires the precise control of their quality. The effects of polyacrylic acid (PAA) on lithium and calcium carbonate crystals were investigated during reaction crystallization in a single-jet system. PAA, in dependence on its molecular weight, strongly influences the shape, size and polymorph type of the carbonate crystals.

    5. Effect of Specific Amino Acids on Controlling Crystal Pseudopolymorphism of L-Arginine Hydrochloride (pages 1427–1430)

      Takeshi Shimizu, Hiromu Yoshiura, Hiroshi Nagano and Izumi Hirasawa

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300695

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      Precise control of polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs is important to obtain highly functional crystals in industry. The effect of a defined amount of amino acid additives on the pseudopolymorphism of L-arginine hydrochloride (LAHCL) is evaluated. A very small amount of specific amino acids is sufficient to stabilize the anhydrate form of LAHCL crystals at low temperature.

  9. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    10. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Overview Contents: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 8/2014 (page 1431)

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490044

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