Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 9

September, 2014

Volume 37, Issue 9

Pages 1435–1615

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2014

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490045

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2014

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490046

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2014 (page 1435)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490047

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2014 (pages 1436–1442)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490048

  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 9/2014 (pages 1444–1445)

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490049

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Desorption- and Decomposition-Based Techniques for the Regeneration of Activated Carbon (pages 1447–1459)

      Odivan Zanella, Isabel Cristina Tessaro and Liliana Amaral Féris

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300808

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      Various regeneration techniques are applied for the reuse of saturated activated carbon (AC) which help in reducing costs related to the adsorption process and in minimizing environmental impacts. Literature devoted to the regeneration of saturated ACs is reviewed and promising methods such as electrochemical, ultrasonic, microwave, and chemical regeneration are emphasized.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Safe Transport of Acrylic Acid in Railroad Tank Cars. Part 1: Determination of the Self-Accelerating Decomposition Temperature (pages 1460–1467)

      Gerhard Krause, Klaus-Dieter Wehrstedt, Marcus Malow, Klaus Budde and Jürgen Mosler

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300778

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      The safe transport of dangerous goods in large quantities depends particularly on the temperature behavior of the substance during carriage. An investigation program was carried out to determine and evaluate the so-called self-accelerating decomposition temperature of acrylic acid in a railroad tank car according to UN Test H.2 and by numerical simulation.

    2. The Influence of Interfacial Areas for Gas Absorption in the Presence of Solid Particles (pages 1468–1474)

      Cornelia Ablasser, Sebastian Hofmann and Olaf Hinrichsen

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400052

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      The influence of the interface in gas-liquid absorption was studied in a stirred cell. The arrangement of the interfacial area is of minor relevance due to the hydrodynamics. Suspended glass beads hinder the renewal of the interfacial area whereas the mass transfer is enhanced in the presence of suspended activated carbon particles. Surfactants are removed from gas-liquid interface by suspended activated carbon.

    3. Optimization of Effective Sol-Gel Parameters for the Synthesis of Mesoporous γ-Al2O3 Using Experimental Design (pages 1475–1482)

      Niloufar S. Ghavami Masouleh, Majid Taghizadeh and Fereydoon Yaripour

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300747

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      Mesoporous γ-alumina is used as catalyst in the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether, a nonpetroleum fuel alternative. Here, the catalyst was prepared by the sol-gel method using aluminum ethoxide as a new alkoxide. The main parameters affecting its texture were optimized by the Taguchi method. Testing revealed that the aging temperature had a significant influence on the catalyst performance.

    4. Hybrid Process for o- and p-Xylene Production in Aromatics Plants (pages 1483–1492)

      Mariana A. Moreira, Alexandre F. P. Ferreira, João C. Santos, José M. Loureiro and Alírio E. Rodrigues

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300724

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      The separation of xylene isomers in liquid phase is a challenging task due to their similar molecular structures. A new hybrid process for such separation combining adsorption and crystallization technologies is proposed. The application of simulated bed technology is studied by simulation using xylene adsorption equilibrium data of the metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al).

    5. Steam and Dry Reforming Processes Coupled with Partial Oxidation of Methane for CO2 Emission Reduction (pages 1493–1499)

      Yishan Zhang, Shujing Zhang, Helen H. Lou, John L. Gossage and Tracy J. Benson

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400132

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      Amine-based CO2 absorption proved to be suitable for CO2 capture. The integrated process of steam methane reforming (SMR) with dry methane reforming coupled to partial oxidation of methane for production of syngas is systematically evaluated and compared to the conventional SMR process. The combined process allows for considerable energy and utility cost savings.

    6. Feasibility of a Co Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Air Separation: Thermodynamics and Kinetics (pages 1500–1506)

      Kun Wang, Qingbo Yu, Qin Qin and Wenjun Duan

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400178

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      Feasible oxygen carrier materials should provide high oxygen transport capacity, high reactivity in reduction and oxidation reactions, and resistance to attrition and agglomeration. The potential of Co3O4 as oxygen carrier with ZrO2 as binder was thermodynamically investigated. The proposed Co/Zr oxygen carrier proved to be a suitable candidate for the chemical looping air separation process.

    7. Bubble Formation at Variously Inclined Nozzles (pages 1507–1514)

      Francesca Scargiali, Antonio Busciglio, Franco Grisafi and Alberto Brucato

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300511

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      A phenomenological model for predicting the size of bubbles formed at submerged single nozzles is presented. Model predictions are found to agree well with experimental and literature data. The proposed model accounts in a simple way for the velocities induced in the liquid by bubble passage, and an original bubble detachment criterion is suggested.

    8. Design and Control of an Integrated 1,4-Butanediol Dehydrogenation and Furfural Hydrogenation Plant (pages 1515–1524)

      Ahtesham Javaid and Costin S. Bildea

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400210

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      Simultaneous production of γ-butyrolactone, furfural alcohol, and 2-methyl furan can be carried out in a single adiabatic reactor using small hydrogen excess. The process, including reactor, separation, and recycle, is controllable and flexible, allowing different production rates and a wide range of ratios between products.

    9. Liquid-Solid Mass Transfer Behavior of a Stirred-Tank Reactor with a Fixed Bed at Its Bottom (pages 1525–1531)

      Mohamed A. El-Naggar, Mohamed H. Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed A. Zatout and Gomaa H. Sedahmed

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300689

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      The performance of a newly developed stirred-tank reactor needs to be investigated to establish its suitability for catalytic reactions. The parameters studied were impeller rotation speed, physical properties of the solution, Raschig ring diameter, fixed bed height, the presence of drag-reducing polymers, and impeller geometry. All data were correlated by dimensionless equations.

    10. Using Coal Fly Ash and Wastewater for Microwave Synthesis of LTA Zeolite (pages 1532–1540)

      Jamshid Behin, Syed Salman Bukhari, Vahid Dehnavi, Hossein Kazemian and Sohrab Rohani

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400225

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      To verify zero discharge, reuse of industrial wastes from a coal-fired power plant and a plasma electrolytic oxidation process was attempted. Na-A zeolite as a value-added product could be synthesized by hydrothermal microwave-assisted zeolitization of coal fly ash with wastewater. Its high cation-exchange capacity allows applying the product for gas purification and soil remediation.

    11. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of the Parex' Feed and Desorbent Streams from Batch Experiments (pages 1541–1551)

      Marta S. P. Silva, José P. B. Mota and Alírio E. Rodrigues

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300721

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Parex process, used for the separation of p-xylene is based on the affinity differences to the adsorbent between p-xylene and the other components of the feed. The adsorption of these components is studied under industrial conditions using experimental uptake curves obtained from batch experiments and mathematical modeling with the macropore diffusion rate as the rate-controlling mechanism.

    12. High-Temperature Capture of CO2 on Lithium-Based Sorbents Prepared by a Water-Based Sol-Gel Technique (pages 1552–1558)

      Ke Wang, Xinyong Wang, Pengfei Zhao and Xin Guo

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300584

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      A water-based sol-gel technique was used to prepare a Li4SiO4 sorbent for CO2 capture. This technique generated a special Li4SiO4 structure with smaller crystalline nanoparticles, higher porosity, and larger surface area. The resulting sorbent showed increased CO2 capture and improved kinetic behavior and maintained higher capacities during multiple cycles.

    13. Effect of Water Flow Rate on Decontamination Efficiency of Emergency Safety Showers (pages 1559–1565)

      Thomas Brock, Volker Heil, Hermann Philipp, Ulrich Seifert, Wilfried Steffens and Kurt Timm

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400142

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      “The more the better” does not apply to overhead emergency safety showers for decontamination after chemical accidents if the effect of water flow rate on wash-off time is considered. A survey with 15 customary shower heads indicates other factors like the wetting degree, which denotes the local and temporal uniformity of wetting, affecting the wash-off efficiency.

    14. Bubble Volume and Aspect Ratio Generated in Non-Newtonian Fluids (pages 1566–1574)

      Wenyan Fan, Yawei Sun and Hui Chen

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400083

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      The formation characteristics of a single bubble in a non-Newtonian fluid must be known to optimize the gas-liquid equipment design and to elucidate the bubble coalescence mechanism. Rheological characteristics of fluids were considered to simulate and investigate the dynamics of bubble formation in non-Newtonian fluids. Two key parameters were studied by analyzing the bubbling regime and its influences.

    15. Energy Dissipation Rates of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in a Stirred Vessel (pages 1575–1582)

      Xu Wang, Xin Feng, Chao Yang and Zai-Sha Mao

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400003

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      The energy dissipation rate ϵ is essential for quality and efficiency of mixing processes in stirred vessels. Energy dissipation rates of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are calculated directly from 2D particle image velocimetry. The dissimilar rates of these fluids result from the difference in fluid rheology and apparent viscosity distribution.

    16. Designing Absorption Processes with Aqueous Diglycolamine (pages 1583–1592)

      Onkar Dixit and Norbert Mollekopf

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400085

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      Diglycolamine (DGA) has been the solvent of choice for treating low-pressure, very sour associated gas. When compared with monoethanolamine or diethanolamine gas-sweetening processes, a DGA process presents economic incentives such as lower heat consumption and a lower circulation rate. Experimentally measured properties of aqueous DGA solvents can be used to design absorption and desorption columns.

    17. Effect of Temperature on Fluidization Regimes (pages 1593–1599)

      Mohammad-Javad Hagh-Shenas-Lari and Navid Mostoufi

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400001

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      Since industrial fluidized-bed reactors operate at high temperatures, the effect of temperature on the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds needs special attention. The energy of macro-, meso-, and microstructures as a function of bed temperature was determined by pressure fluctuations, leading to the probability of bubbling or turbulent fluidization regimes.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Review
    8. Research Articles
    9. Communications
    1. Combustion of Lithium Particles: Optical Measurement Methodology and Initial Results (pages 1600–1605)

      Martin Schiemann, Peter Fischer, Viktor Scherer, Günter Schmid and Dan Taroata

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400011

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      Electropositive metals react exothermally with typical exhaust gas atmospheres. Solid lithium particles were burned and analyzed in a laminar-flow reactor. The exhaust gases of a methane-air flame supplied the reactants O2, CO2, N2, and H2O for the lithium conversion. Optical measurements on burning lithium particles were performed to investigate the combustion behavior.

    2. Pretreatment of Natural Materials Used for Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Commercial Phytopharmaceuticals (pages 1606–1611)

      Jasna Ivanovic, Florian Meyer, Marko Stamenic, Philip Jaeger, Irena Zizovic and Rudolf Eggers

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300715

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      Phytopharmaceuticals are commonly extracted from natural source materials by a variety of mechanical or thermal extraction methods. The effects of various mechanical pretreatments and rapid gas decompression on supercritical CO2 extraction were discussed. The defined optimal pretreatments resulted in significant increases in yield and/or content of active substances.

    3. Shortcut Evaluation of Chemical Carbon Dioxide Utilization Processes (pages 1612–1615)

      Karsten Müller and Wolfgang Arlt

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400228

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      The feasibility of chemical utilization of carbon dioxide as an option for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is discussed. Since an evaluation of the CO2 balance of such a process would require detailed process simulation for the utilization reaction and the supply chain, several estimation methods are presented for a quick evaluation of the potential to mitigate emissions.

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