Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 1

January, 2015

Volume 38, Issue 1

Pages 3–186

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 1/2015

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490070

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 1/2015

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490072

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 1/2015 (page 3)

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490073

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 1/2015 (pages 4–10)

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490074

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      CET goes mobile (page 11)

      Elmar Zimmermann

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490069

  6. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 1/2015 (pages 12–13)

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201490071

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    1. Fully Automated Reactor System for Continuous Characterization of (Bio)catalysts (pages 15–22)

      Evgenij Lyagin, Anja Drews and Matthias Kraume

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400135

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      Currently available screening and characterization systems for biocatalysis are not sufficiently suitable for process description and scale-up of results to pilot- or full-scale reactors often operated in continuous mode. Hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-methio-nine served as model reaction for an innovative continuous characterization system, implementing a precise dosing system.

    2. Spatial Scale Effects on Rayleigh Convection and Interfacial Mass Transfer Characteristics in CO2 Absorption (pages 23–32)

      Kai Guo, Chunjiang Liu, Shuyong Chen, Bo Fu and Botan Liu

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400335

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      Numerical investigation of concentration gradient-induced Rayleigh convection in CO2 absorption with varying liquid layer height is performed based on the hybrid Lattice-Boltzmann/finite-difference method. Results indicate the temporal-spatial evolution of Rayleigh convection and interfacial mass transfer characteristics. Two statistical quantities are proposed for improved assessment of the renewal intensity.

    3. Modular Microstructured Reactors for Pilot- and Production Scale Chemistry (pages 33–43)

      Aras Ghaini, Monika Balon-Burger, Anca Bogdan, Ulrich Krtschil and Patrick Löb

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400214

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      Different types of microstructured modular reactors which were made by novel manufacturing techniques were characterized in terms of reaction engineering. Results for residence time distribution, heat transfer performance, and liquid-liquid mixing performance are reported. Based on these results, improved and optimized versions of the stacked-plate reactors are being manufactured and tested.

    4. Impact of Surfactant Addition on Oxygen Mass Transfer in a Bubble Column (pages 44–52)

      Dale D. McClure, Ai Chia Lee, John M. Kavanagh, David F. Fletcher and Geoffrey W. Barton

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400403

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      The effect of sparger design and surfactant addition on the interfacial area, liquid film mass transfer coefficient, and the rate of oxygen transfer was studied in a bubble column operating at varying superficial velocities. The sparger design had little impact on the observed oxygen transfer rate, while the addition of surfactant led to an approximately threefold reduction in mass transfer.

    5. Predicting Power for a Scaled-up Non-Newtonian Biomass Slurry (pages 53–60)

      David C. Russ, Jonathan M. D. Thomas, Q. Sean Miller and R. Eric Berson

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400327

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      High-solids biomass slurries are characterized by non-Newtonian behavior with a yield stress and high power input demand for mixing. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to predict power requirements of non-Newtonian lignocellulosic slurry in an industrial-scale hydrolysis reactor with conventional mixing impellers. The lab-scale model was validated against experimental data and then scaled up.

    6. Advanced TEMKIN Reactor: Testing of Industrial Eggshell Catalysts on the Laboratory Scale (pages 61–67)

      Martin Kuhn, Martin Lucas and Peter Claus

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400616

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      The advanced TEMKIN reactor is well suitable for testing of uncrushed industrial eggshell catalysts because of its defined flow pattern and excellent mass and heat transport properties. Because of its simple and robust design, all technical requirements are fulfilled for a fast, competitive, and accurate optimization of prototypes as well as already established catalysts for industrial applications.

    7. Catalytic Performance of Coal Char for the Methane Reforming Process (pages 68–74)

      Tao He, Zhiqiang Sun, Jinhu Wu, Zexi Xu, Dongke Zhang and Dezhi Han

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400124

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      A new concept of combined coal gasification and methane reforming process in a single reactor is presented. Coal char exhibited remarkable catalytic activity in the methane cracking and reforming reactions, with the catalytic effect increasing with decreasing coal rank. Simultaneous gasification of the coal char counter-balanced the detrimental deposition of carbon on the catalyst surface.

    8. Improved Density Correlation for Supercritical CO2 (pages 75–84)

      Zhiyuan Wang, Baojiang Sun and Linlin Yan

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400357

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      Precise predictions of the density of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) are crucial for developing and applying new techniques by combining experimental data with theoretical analyses. The twelve most commonly applied equations of state were chosen to study both the variation law and relative errors of the SC-CO2 density. A new density calculation formula is proposed for practical applications.

    9. Relationship between Pyrite in the Precursor and the Pore Structure of High-Surface Area Activated Carbon Preparations (pages 85–90)

      Huaihao Zhang, Yuanyuan Jiang, Kai Chen, Yongfeng Hu, Hui Wang, Jing Zhao, Xiaoxing Zhang and Chengyin Wang

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400340

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      Analogous sulfur-containing precursors were used to prepare high-surface area activated carbon (HAC) by KOH chemical activation. Pyrite (FeS2) in the precursor consumes some of the KOH, thereby decreasing the specific surface area and pore volume of HAC. Thus, the FeS2 content in mineral substances used as HAC precursors should be strictly controlled.

    10. Kinetics Analysis of Heterogeneous Oxidation of Coal Particles in Supercritical Water (pages 91–100)

      Honghe Ma, Shuzhong Wang, Lu Zhou, Suxia Ma, Jiang Fan and Donghai Xu

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400278

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      The oxidation of coal particles in supercritical water as an environmentally benign combustion process was investigated. Depending on the particle temperature, the rate-limiting step of the oxidation reaction changed from the surface reaction to the mass transfer of oxygen. The derived reaction rate model revealed the relationship among particle size and temperature and time to complete oxidation.

    11. Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Vegetable Oil Wastewater Treatment (pages 101–109)

      Zhun Ma, Ting Lei, Xiaosheng Ji, Xueli Gao and Congjie Gao

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400184

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      Treatment and disposal of vegetable oil wastewaters (VOWs) is one of the principal problems for vegetable oil producing countries. A bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor was applied to treat VOWs with complete sludge retention. Treatment performance and membrane fouling were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated the great potential of this membrane bioreactor in removing pollutants.

    12. Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 Conversion by Sodium Borohydride (pages 110–116)

      Yi Zhao and Zili Zhang

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400292

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      A low-energy-consuming method for the emission reduction and resource utilization of CO2 from coal-fired flue gas under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature was developed. Ion chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of conversion products of CO2 confirmed a raw material, formate, as the major reduction product. The feasibility of CO2 conversion by sodium borohydride was evaluated thermodynamically.

    13. Enhanced Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Functional Mo-Containing Mesoporous Silica (pages 117–124)

      Ming Zhang, Wenshuai Zhu, Suhang Xun, Jun Xiong, Wenjing Ding, Meng Li, Qian Wang and Huaming Li

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400023

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      The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is of utmost importance for stringent fuel specifications and environment pollution. Functional mesoporous Mo–SiO2 materials were synthesized by a facile procedure and were characterized by a high dispersion of molybdenum species and excellent catalytic activity for the removal of dibenzothiophene under mild conditions without organic solvents as extractants.

    14. Sorption of Acetaldehyde and Hexanal in Trace Concentrations on Carbon-Based Adsorbents (pages 125–130)

      Roman Ortmann, Christoph Pasel, Michael Luckas, Sebastian Kraas, Michael Fröba and Dieter Bathen

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400510

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      Information on sorption characteristics of hazardous substances is essential to design separation processes. Adsorption and desorption of the toxic acetaldehyde and the intensely odorous hexanal on activated carbon and periodic mesoporous carbon were studied. Magnetic suspension balances were used to analyze the sorption processes. Both adsorbents exhibit a higher capacity for hexanal than acetaldehyde.

    15. Correlation between Organic Fouling of Reverse-Osmosis Membranes and Various Interfacial Interactions (pages 131–138)

      Haigang Li, Ping Yu and Yunbai Luo

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400379

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      Membrane fouling is a well-known hindrance to effective application of reverse-osmosis membranes. Adsorption of aromatic compounds on such membranes is analyzed. Initial fouling is found to be dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force while irreversible fouling is affected by hydrogen bond formation between membrane surface and organic compounds.

    16. Influence of NaCl on Granulometric Characteristics and Polymorphism in Batch-Cooling Crystallization of Glycine (pages 139–146)

      Martina Hrkovac, Jasna Prlić Kardum and Neven Ukrainczyk

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400462

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      Interactions between additives and the crystallizing phase influence crystallization processes. Batch-cooling crystallization of glycine with different amounts of added NaCl is described, causing changes in solubility, metastable zone width, supersaturation, final mass of crystals, granulometric properties, and structure. Process conditions for a conversion of α- into a γ-glycine structure are defined.

    17. Environmentally Friendly Solvent- and Water-Based Coatings for Mitigation of Crystallization Fouling (pages 147–154)

      Abdullah Al-Janabi and M. Reza Malayeri

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400457

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      Recent technological advances have given impetus in altering surface properties to mitigate fouling of heat transfer surfaces. The attempted coatings in this study demonstrated that they can extend the induction period of the fouling processes of CaSO4 deposits by four times. This was mostly due to their higher electron donor component of the surface energy compared to stainless-steel substrate.

    18. Numerical Simulation of the Solute-Induced Marangoni Effect with the Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme (pages 155–163)

      Jie Chen, Zhihui Wang, Chao Yang and Zai-Sha Mao

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400354

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      The solute-induced Marangoni effect on an ascending drop driven by buoyancy is numerically simulated based on the level set method. The semi-Lagrangian convection scheme is introduced to eliminate the artificial diffusion. Compared with literature data, the present algorithm with the semi-Lagrangian convection scheme significantly suppressed the numerical diffusion and achieved much better predictions.

    19. Modeling, Characteristic Analysis and Optimization of an Improved Heat-Integrated Air Separation Column (pages 164–172)

      Liang Chang and Xinggao Liu

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400070

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      An improved heat-integrated air separation column is proposed. With the new heat-integrated and thermally coupled structure, the pressure of the high-pressure column and the energy consumption decrease significantly compared with the conventional air separation column. The mathematic model and parameter analysis are presented. An optimization model for the heat transfer coefficient is proposed.

    20. CFD Simulation of the Heat and Mass Transfer Process during Centrifugal Short-Path Distillation (pages 173–180)

      Jiang Yu, Lijun Chen, Xigang Yuan, Aiwu Zeng and Ji Ju

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400279

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      Molecular or short-path distillation is usually treated as an appropriate method to separate low-volatile and heat-sensitive substances. Numerical simulation was performed for a centrifugal short-path distillation setup applying computational fluid dynamics technology. Two phases and interfacial transport were considered in order to determine the heat and mass transport in the film body and the interface.

    21. Particle Size Control and Crystal Habit Modification of Phenacetin Using Ultrasonic Crystallization (pages 181–186)

      Chie-Shaan Su, Chieh-Yun Liao and Wun-De Jheng

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300573

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      Ultrasonic crystallization is a promising process for controlling the different stages of crystallization. Cooling crystallization applying power ultrasound is adopted for recrystallization of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenacetin. The mean particle size can be managed by adjusting sonication intensity and duration. Phenacetin crystals with a regular crystal habit and an elliptic shape are obtained.

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