Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 7

Special Issue: 8th CBM Workshop on Chemical and Biological Micro Laboratory Technologies

July, 2015

Volume 38, Issue 7

Pages 1097–1287

Issue edited by: Michael Köhler

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
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      Cover Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (page 1097)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590033

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Editorial Board Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (page 1098)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590034

  3. Overview

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Overview Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (page 1099)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590035

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (pages 1100–1106)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590036

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Process Control in Microreactors (pages 1107–1108)

      J. Michael Köhler

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590037

  6. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Highlights: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (pages 1110–1111)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590038

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. Ultrasonic Hot Embossed Polymer Microreactors for Optical Measurement of Chemical Reactions (pages 1113–1121)

      Alexander Tollkötter, Johannes Sackmann, Tobias Baldhoff, Werner Karl Schomburg and Norbert Kockmann

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400522

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      Ultrasonic hot embossing of chemically resistant polymers as a simple and cost-effective fabrication method of microstructures and an optical analysis tool for tracing the progress of chemical reactions are introduced and evaluated. The simplicity of the fabrication method itself and good similarities of produced polymer micromixers with conventional ones made of other materials are pointed out.

    2. Axial Dispersion and Heat Transfer in a Milli/Microstructured Coiled Flow Inverter for Narrow Residence Time Distribution at Laminar Flow (pages 1122–1130)

      Safa Kutup Kurt, Marius Gerrit Gelhausen and Norbert Kockmann

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400515

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      A microstructured coiled flow inverter offers a behavior close to a plug-flow reactor in terms of residence time distribution (RTD) at laminar flow regimes. Experimental characterization of the RTD for such tubular reactor or static mixer allowed for developing a novel microreactor concept, the so-called short helical alternating reactor capillary which provides efficient heat transfer with narrow RTD.

    3. High-Throughput Synthesis of Uniform Silver Seed Particles by a Continuous Microfluidic Synthesis Platform (pages 1131–1137)

      Matthias Thiele, Andrea Knauer, Andrea Csáki, Daniell Mallsch, Thomas Henkel, Johann Michael Köhler and Wolfgang Fritzsche

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400524

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      The synthesis of silver nanoprisms is realized in a novel microfluidic platform consisting of three different micromixers. Uniform crystalline particles were prepared, acting as seed particles for a second batch reactor-based synthesis. This reproducible synthesis platform allows for large-scale synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles with defined dimension and plasmon resonance.

    4. Photochemical Micro Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles of the Platinum Group (pages 1138–1143)

      Lars Hafermann and J. Michael Köhler

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500029

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      The size of noble metal nanoparticles influences their catalytic and plasmonic properties. Photochemical synthesis of such nanoparticles was transferred to a micro segmented flow control in order to control all reaction aspects. The exposure time could be significantly reduced in comparison to the batch process. Nanoparticles with comparatively high size homogeneity were achieved.

    5. Microflow SERS Measurements Using Sensing Particles of Polyacrylamide/Silver Composite Materials (pages 1144–1149)

      Nikunjkumar Visaveliya*, Steffen Lenke*, Alexander Groß and J. Michael Köhler

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500035

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      Continuous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements of sensor particles after interaction with diverse analytes were performed under continuous-flow conditions. The step-by-step activation and deactivation of analytes on the surface of the sensor particles proves the feasibility of sequential SERS measurements for the detection and identification of various analytes in continuous flow.

    6. Segmented Flow-Based Multistep Synthesis of Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots with Narrow Particle Size Distribution (pages 1150–1153)

      Viktor Misuk, Maxim Schmidt, Sandra Braukmann, Konstantinos Giannopoulos, Dominik Karl and Holger Loewe

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500115

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      Quantum dots are nanocrystalline semiconductors that differ greatly from their bulk counterparts. To obtain CdSe quantum dots with a narrow size distribution, a two-step procedure was applied, in which CdSe seeds were synthesized in a separate process prior to the nanoparticle growing procedure. The seeds were mixed into the growing solution-containing droplet by coaxial injection.

    7. Mass Transfer Evolution in a Reactive Spray during Carbon Dioxide Capture (pages 1154–1164)

      Maria Ouboukhlik, Gilles Godard, Sawitree Saengkaew, Marie-Christine Fournier-Salaün, Lionel Estel and Gérard Grehan

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400651

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      The global rainbow technique (GRT) is a non-intrusive way to measure the refractive index of a small volume located in a spray. During CO2 capture, the concentration and temperature inside the droplet change, leading to an evolution of droplets density, and thus the refractive index. GRT is an effective way to determine the mass transfer extent during absorption with chemical reaction in a spray.

    8. Analytic Setup for Multicomponent High-Pressure Phase Equilibria via Dual Online Gas Chromatography (pages 1165–1172)

      Frederick C. v. N. Fourie, Cara E. Schwarz and Johannes H. Knoetze

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400643

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      Supercritical fluid solvents may provide improved selectivity or solvating ability and enable the execution of difficult extractions. Ternary phase behavior data assist supercritical fluid extraction process design. A high-pressure static analytic phase equilibria setup was developed. The setup produces accurate supercritical phase composition data and can accommodate diverse mixture constituents.

    9. Feasibility of the Constrained Free Energy Method for Modeling NO Formation in Combustion (pages 1173–1182)

      Petteri Kangas, Pertti Koukkari, Anders Brink and Mikko Hupa

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400633

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      An alternative thermochemical approach for modeling NOX emissions is proposed. NO emissions in combustion are modeled with the constrained free energy (CFE) method which allows calculations of local restricted thermodynamic equilibrium by implementing reaction kinetic rates as constraints. Thermal and fuel NO emissions were successfully estimated with the CFE approach.

    10. Preliminary Design of a Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption Process for Natural Gas Upgrading Based on Amino-Functionalized MIL-53 (pages 1183–1194)

      Pablo Serra-Crespo, Tim A. Wezendonk, Carlos Bach-Samario, Nishanth Sundar, Karlijn Verouden, Matthijs Zweemer, Jorge Gascon, Henk van den Berg and Freek Kapteijn

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400741

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      A vacuum pressure swing adsorption process, based on the usage of the metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-53(Al) for the separation of CO2 from CH4, is proposed based on a conceptual process design methodology. The analysis includes a technical evaluation, an economic study, and a comparison with the most widely applied technologies, proving the competitiveness of the proposed process.

    11. Effect of Bed Depth on Granular Flow and Homogenization in a Vertical Bladed Mixer via Discrete Element Method (pages 1195–1202)

      Tomas Barczi, Tereza Travnickova, Jaromir Havlica and Martin Kohout

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400686

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      Effective mixing of powders and granular materials is important for the quality of a final product. Granular mixing was simulated via discrete element method. The effects of bed depth and blade speed on homogenization and on flow patterns were analyzed. Macroscopic and microscopic approaches were connected and optimal conditions for homogenization were predicted from flow patterns.

    12. Bidisperse Shrinking Core Model for Supercritical Fluid Extraction (pages 1203–1211)

      Andrey G. Egorov and Arthur A. Salamatin

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400627

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      A generalization of the shrinking core model for supercritical fluid extraction is introduced which takes into account the polydisperse nature of ground plant material. Model simplification adjusted for common extraction conditions, resulting in bidisperse approximation and simple asymptotic formulas is developed and successfully verified with experimental data from literature.

    13. Integration of Fire and Explosion Index in 3D Process Plant Design Software (pages 1212–1222)

      Piotr T. Mitkowski and Sylwia K. Bal

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400644

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      In conventional process plant design, safety analysis is performed at the stage when the main design decisions were already made. The presented perspective allows placing the safety considerations using the fire and explosion index (F&EI) in a 3D modeling environment. Results of the F&EI assessment can be visualized and shared between all disciplines involved in plant design.

    14. Harnessing Laccases for the Synthesis of Bisphenol A Biopolymers (pages 1223–1228)

      Catherine Hautphenne and Frédéric Debaste

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400629

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      Enzymes represent well-suited candidates in biotechnologies for the formation of biopolymers. Catalyzed enzymatic polymerization of bisphenol A (BPA) by laccases was investigated. Time-dependent formation of insoluble BPA oligomers was monitored and modeled by means of a Doehlert design with two factors. Small BPA oligomers with units associated via C–O bonds were formed.

    15. CFD Simulation of Two-Phase Flow Patterns in the Gas Channel of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (pages 1229–1234)

      Selene M. A. Guelli Ulson de Souza, Erasmo Mancusi, Éliton Fontana and Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400545

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      Flow misdistribution caused by water accumulation in gas channels is one of the most important water management concerns in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The most significant factors associated with the transport phenomenon inside the cell are investigated by a detailed mathematical model with special attention on the gas diffusion layer surface wetting properties.

    16. Hydrogen Production by a Photosynthetic Bacterium: Some Analytical Solutions (pages 1235–1242)

      Muthuramalingam Rasi and Lakshmanan Rajendran

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400381

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      Hydrogen can be produced by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here, the mathematical model for the production in a batch photobioreactor is discussed. Approximate analytical expressions for the concentrations of biomass and substrate and the production of H2 were obtained in terms of the kinetic parameters. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is also presented.

    17. Energy Optimization for a Multistage Crude Oil Distillation Process (pages 1243–1253)

      Wugen Gu, Kan Wang, Yuqing Huang, Bingjian Zhang, Qinglin Chen and Chi-Wai Hui

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400130

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      The distillation load distribution of the distillation columns in a multistage crude oil distillation process is directly related to the energy consumption, and the yields of the sidestreams of these columns affect the thermal exergy recovery for the crude oil plant. These problems are formulated by an energy optimization approach combining mathematical programming and exergy analysis.

    18. Fluidized-Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon on Very Dense Tungsten Powder (pages 1254–1260)

      Florence Vanni, Mélanie Montaigu, Brigitte Caussat, Carine Ablitzer, Xavière Iltis and Méryl Brothier

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400350

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      Very dense tungsten powders simulating nuclear fuel particles were coated by silicon from silane using fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition in a reactor with reduced diameter. Fluidization of such particles could be reached, but with non-optimal gas-solid contact due to their high density. Conditions were found to form 0.5 µm thick continuous silicon layers on the powder surface.

    19. Electrostatic Charge Measurements of Droplets of Various Liquids Falling over a Large Distance (pages 1261–1268)

      Sylvia Lüttgens, Günter Lüttgens, Anders Thulin, Thierry Paillat and Gérard Touchard

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400747

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      Due to the generated electrostatic charges, the splash filling process poses some dangers. Here, the charge evolution of a single droplet is examined along its fall. From experiments with droplets of many different liquids, falling over 5 m, it is confirmed that the assumption that droplets are charged by friction with air, as still discussed in the explosion hazard community, does not hold true.

    20. Particle Motion in Two- and Three-Phase Fluidized-Bed Reactors Determined by Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pages 1269–1276)

      Qing Zhang, Yefeng Zhou, Jingdai Wang, Binbo Jiang, Yongrong Yang, Siegfried Stapf, Carlos Mattea and Qingxia Gong

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400659

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      Velocity distribution and dispersion coefficient of a model fluidized-bed reactor of low aspect ratio was investigated by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance. For the first time, the feasibility is demonstrated to describe statistically the behavior in three-phase reactors with a dominating water component. Addition of water enhanced the particle motion in the bed.

    21. Performance Comparison of Trisection Helical Baffle Heat Exchangers with Different Circumferential Overlap Sizes (pages 1277–1284)

      Cong Dong, Ya-Ping Chen and Jia-Feng Wu

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201300499

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      The circumferential overlap trisection helical baffle heat exchanger is a modification based on a quadrant baffle and anti-shortcut structure to improve heat transfer performance. The mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement for four circumferential overlap structures were investigated. Pressure contours plotted with velocity vectors on special slices reveal secondary flow and bypass stream.

  8. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Highlights
    8. Research Articles
    9. Overview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Overview Contents: Chemie Ingenieur Technik 7/2015 (page 1287)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590039

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