Chemical Engineering & Technology

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 8

August, 2015

Volume 38, Issue 8

Pages 1292–1493

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2015 (pages 1292–1298)

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590040

  2. Editorial Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (pages 1100–1106)

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590041

  3. Overview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (pages 1100–1106)

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590042

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 8/2015 (pages 1292–1298)

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590043

  5. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. Contents: Chem. Eng. Technol. 7/2015 (pages 1100–1106)

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201590044

  6. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial Board
    4. Overview
    5. Contents
    6. Highlights
    7. Research Articles
    1. Model-Based Recognition of Mid-Infrared Sensor Fouling in Paracetamol Crystallization (pages 1303–1307)

      Clemens B. Minnich, Lydia Helmdach, Joachim Ulrich and Martin P. Feth

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400585

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      Attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared probe clogging is a frequently observed problem, but no intrinsic recognition of probe clogging from the sensor itself has been presented yet. An approach is proposed that detects a critical presence of the solid in the mid-infrared spectra of the crystallizing medium by an indirect hard modeling analysis of the mixture spectra.

    2. Automated and Continuous Production of Microstructured Metallic Plates via Cold Embossing (pages 1308–1314)

      Ole Wiborg, Martin O'Connell, Richard Thiele, Martin Wichert and Gunther Kolb

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400708

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      Critical issues for manufacturing microstructured reactors in large unit volumes are cost, ease of production, and reliability. A combined embossing and bending tool is developed and optimized for rapid and continuous manufacture of easily machined plates. Significant progress is achieved with regard to automation and continuous processing of the individual embossing and forming steps.

    3. Application of Statistical Design to an Industrial-Scale Dead-End Ultrafiltration Process (pages 1315–1326)

      Mohamed Bin Shams, Faisal Mumtaz, Ashwin Murali, Waseem Akbar and Nader Al-Bastaki

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400535

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      A two-level full factorial design and a central composite design were used to optimize the filtrate production of an industrial ultrafiltration membrane while manipulating the feed pressure, backwash pressure, forward filtration time, and backwash time. The obtained regression models were validated by analysis of variance and residual analysis. The optimal levels were then validated experimentally.

    4. 3D Simulation of the Filtration and Dust Retention Process of a Fuel Filter (pages 1327–1333)

      Luis Valiño, Radu Mustata, Juan Hierro, Juan L. Hernández, Martin Busack, Maria J. García and Carlos Blasco

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400615

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      In order to describe the dust retention process inside a filter, a model was developed and successfully applied to a detailed 3D numerical simulation of an automotive diesel filter. Pressure drop variation due to the clogging process in the filter paper could be well predicted. The newly developed numerical tool is able to facilitate the design of filtering devices.

    5. Microwave-Assisted Continuous-Flow Reactor Based on a Ridged Waveguide (pages 1334–1339)

      Peiping Zhou, Xiaoqing Yang, Kama Huang and Guozhu Jia

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400634

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      Microwave-assisted continuous-flow reactors are considered as an effective alternative to conventional reactors to accelerate chemical reactions. Such a reactor based on a special optimized ridged waveguide is proposed and experimentally verified. Water is heated uniformly in a wide temperature range. The reactor can be applied for various kinds of chemical reactions in aqueous solution.

    6. Continuously Conducted Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene in a Four-Phase System (pages 1340–1342)

      Hendrik Spod, Martin Lucas and Peter Claus

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500224

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      Selective hydro-genation of benzene to cyclohexene is still a challenging task. A laboratory method for this difficult four-phase reaction was realized in a continuous stirred-tank reactor with a gas/liquid/liquid/solid system. The use of large amounts of inorganic additives was suppressed by applying a supported ruthenium catalyst and minimal amounts of the salt NaDCA as modifier.

    7. Metathesis of 1-Hexene over Heterogeneous Tungsten-Based Catalysts (pages 1343–1352)

      Arisha Prithipal, David Lokhat and Maciej Starzak

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400465

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      The metathesis of terminal linear alkenes can be applied for the valorization of secondary Fischer-Tropsch product streams. The performance of silica-supported tungsten trioxide catalysts was investigated for the gas-phase metathesis of 1-hexene in a fixed-bed reactor. Metathesis of 1-hexene yielded valuable detergent-range alkenes. Doping WO3/SiO2 with potassium was found to reduce isomerization and cracking of 1-hexene.

    8. Preparation Method for Ruthenium Catalysts Supported by Carbon-Coated Aluminum Foams (pages 1353–1361)

      Farzad Lali, Severin Gärtner, Stefan Haase and Rüdiger Lange

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400676

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      Open-celled foams have some excellent features favoring their application as reactor packing. An economic method for coating aluminum and aluminum alloy foams with a carbon porous layer into catalytically active reactor packing was developed. Ruthenium was incorporated into the carbon-coated foam substrates. The foam catalysts were mechanically stable without any sign of decay.

    9. Two-Parameter Continuation and Bifurcation Strategies for Oscillatory Behavior Elimination from a Zymomonas mobilis Fermentation System (pages 1362–1370)

      Ibrahim H. I. Mustafa

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400452

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      Two-parameter continuation and bifurcation analysis strategies were applied to control the oscillatory behavior of a Z. mobilis ethanol fermentation system. A mathematical model was built to identify the Hopf bifurcation points indicating the oscillatory behavior. The oscillations could be eliminated by adding small amounts of cells or ethanol to the feed stream or by increasing the dilution rate.

    10. Modified Photobioreactor for Biofixation of Carbon Dioxide by Chlorella vulgaris at Different Light Intensities (pages 1371–1379)

      Gita Naderi, Moses O. Tade and Hussein Znad

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400790

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      A photobioreactor with a unique light enclosure configuration was used to accurately measure the light intensities illuminating cultures of Chlorella vulgaris. The influence of the light intensity on CO2 biofixation and biomass production by C. vulgaris was evaluated, revealing the photon flux as key issue in optimizing the photobioreactor performance, particularly at high cell concentrations.

    11. Promoted Fe2O3-Al2O3-CuO Chromium-Free Catalysts for High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction (pages 1380–1386)

      Fereshteh Meshkani and Mehran Rezaei

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400668

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      The main drawback of conventional catalysts for high-temperature water-gas shift reactions is the existence of harmful chromium in their composition. In order to replace Cr2O3 by other dopants in such catalysts, the effect of Ce, La, Zn, Y, and Mn as promoters on the structural and catalytic properties of Fe2O3-Al2O3-CuO Cr-free catalysts was investigated.

    12. Explicit Determinations of the Colebrook Equation for the Flow Friction Factor by Statistical Analysis (pages 1387–1396)

      Amir Heydari, Elhameh Narimani and Fatemeh Pakniya

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400590

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      In order to determine explicit equations of the friction factor, data of such factors resulting from an iterative solution of the Colebrook equation were fitted into three polynomials. Accuracy and complexity of the obtained approximations were compared with existing equations by advanced comparison analysis based on the relative error.

    13. Production of Synthesis Gas via Dry Reforming of Methane over Co-Based Catalysts: Effect on H2/CO Ratio and Carbon Deposition (pages 1397–1405)

      Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Muhammad Awais Naeem, Anis H. Fakeeha, Wasim Ullah Khan, Ahmed S. Al-Fatesh and Ahmed E. Abasaeed

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400690

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      Synthesis gas was produced by CO2 reforming of CH4 over supported Co catalysts. TiO2-P25-, Al2O3-, SiO2-, and CeO2-supported Co catalysts were investigated. Co/TiO2-P25 and Co/Al2O3 catalysts indicated relatively better stability performances. Ce doping of the Co/TiO2-P25 catalyst significantly improved its activity and stability by reducing carbon deposition and deactivation factor.

    14. Influence of Tortuous Geometry on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Laminar Flow in Microchannels (pages 1406–1415)

      Zhenhui Dai, David F. Fletcher and Brian S. Haynes

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400752

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      Tortuous geometries are usually applied to improve heat transfer performance of microchannel flows. The fundamental understanding of flow behavior in wavy microchannels is important since this affects the pressure drop, heat transfer performance, and the design of microfluidic systems. The effect of geometric variations on flow dynamics was studied by comprehensive flow visualization.

    15. Intrinsic Kinetics of Esterification of Fatty Acids Catalyzed by Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (pages 1416–1424)

      Parminder Kaur Khabinder Singh Heer, Deepak D. Chabukswar and Vilas G. Gaikar

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400698

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      Intrinsic kinetics of fatty acid esterification is particularly complex due to the formation of two phases. Phase equilibrium plays an important role in such biphasic reaction systems. Esterification kinetics of palm fatty acid distillate was investigated with heterogeneous and homogeneous acid catalysts by solving the phase equilibrium simultaneously with the reaction equilibrium.

    16. Computational Investigation of an Industrial Cyclone Separator with Helical-Roof Inlet (pages 1425–1434)

      Dzmitry Misiulia, Anders G. Andersson and T. Staffan Lundström

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500181

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      The pressure and flow field, particle trajectories, and performance of an industrial cyclone separator with helical-roof inlet were numerically investigated using large eddy simulations. Individual particles were tracked through the unsteady flow field by means of the Lagrangian approach. The predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data.

    17. Comparison of Overall Gas-Phase Mass Transfer Coefficient for CO2 Absorption between Tertiary Amines in a Randomly Packed Column (pages 1435–1443)

      Le Wen, Helei Liu, Wichitpan Rongwong, Zhiwu Liang, Kaiyun Fu, Raphael Idem and Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400606

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      Tertiary amines are considered as potential solvents for CO2 capture, but still suffer from low reaction rates with CO2. Compared to a common tertiary amine, 1-dimethylamino-2-propanol provided a higher mass transfer performance and CO2 removal efficiency as well as a significant reduction of equipment cost of the CO2 absorption process in packed columns.

    18. Fabrication of a Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanobiocatalyst for Starch Hydrolysis (pages 1444–1451)

      Manisha Jain, Mariya Sebatini, Govindasamy Sharmila, Chandrasekaran Muthukumaran, Gurunathan Baskar and Krishnamurthi Tamilarasan

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400493

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      Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can serve as a superior solid matrix for enzyme immobilization. Covalent immobilization of α-amylase onto chitosan-coated MNPs was optimized by response surface methodology. This nanobiocatalyst with high temperature and pH stability can be applied in industries for economical and highly efficient starch hydrolysis.

    19. Conversion of Pyrolysis Fuel Oils by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor in the Presence of Methane and Ethane (pages 1452–1459)

      Mohammad R. Khani, Attieh Khosravi, Mahtab Gharibi, Seyedeh S. Shahabi, Elham Dejban Guy and Babak Shokri

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400363

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      One promising application of a dielectric barrier discharge device is to crack hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis fuel oil cracking with low-temperature plasma at ambient pressure in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor was evaluated. Optimization of the type of working gas, applied voltage, and working gas flow rate clearly enhanced the production rate of valuable petrochemical compounds.

    20. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Iron-Based Catalysts for High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction (pages 1460–1468)

      Fereshteh Meshkani and Mehran Rezaei

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400693

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      The type of coprecipitation significantly influences the structural and catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts. The impact of preparation methods on the characteristics of a Fe2O3-Cr2O3-CuO catalyst in the high-temperature water-gas shift reaction was evaluated. In addition, the effect of iron and chromium precursors and the type of precipitation agent was evaluated.

    21. Rheological Properties of Nanoemulsions Stabilized by Polysorbate 80 (pages 1469–1476)

      Małgorzata Jaworska, Elżbieta Sikora and Jan Ogonowski

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500069

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      Rheological analysis plays a key role in the design of controlled release systems. It could be the basis for calculation of the theoretical diffusion coefficient of the active ingredient as well as for determination of the phase inversion point in the phase inversion composition method which belongs to the low-energy emulsification methods of nanoemulsion preparation.

    22. Continuous Crystallization of ZnO Nanoparticles by Spray Flash Evaporation versus Batch Synthesis (pages 1477–1484)

      Martin Klaumünzer, Laurent Schlur, Fabien Schnell and Denis Spitzer

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500053

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      A continuous process for nanoparticle crystallization based on the spray flash evaporation technique is presented, providing an effective synthesis route for ZnO semiconducting nanocrystals. Comparative analysis between the products of the continuous process and the nanocrystals achieved by batch synthesis reveals the differing surface chemistries of the particles derived from the two approaches.

    23. Kinetics of Carbon Dioxide Binding by Promoted Organic Liquids (pages 1485–1489)

      Ozge Yuksel Orhan and Erdogan Alper

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400540

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      To solve the global post-combustion CO2 problem, novel non-aqueous hybride solvents consisting of CO2-binding organic liquids and promoters were designed. The blended solvents capture significant amounts of CO2 due to faster kinetics, with typical half-times of as low as 0.003 s in a custom-designed stopped-flow apparatus.

    24. Production of Particle-Stabilized Nonspherical Emulsion Drops in Simple Shear Flow (pages 1490–1493)

      Tobias Merkel, Volker Gräf, Elke Walz and Heike P. Schuchmann

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201500068

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      Nonspherical drops are of increasing interest in the formation of microcapsules in life as well as material sciences. The production of nonspherical drops in simple shear flow is demonstrated. The drops are stabilized by particles which are situated in the interface and prevent the drops' relaxation. This simple approach is a promising high-throughput alternative to microfluidic devices.

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