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Keywords:

  • anodization;
  • moth-eye structures;
  • nanostructures;
  • self-organization;
  • titanium dioxide
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Moth-eye structures: Highly self-ordered TiO2 nanotube stump (TiNTS) layers anodically grown in a HF/H3PO4 electrolyte are presented. The resulting low-aspect-ratio tubes can easily be conformally filled by vacuum-sputter deposition or by melt-casting. Removing the TiO2 nanotube template results in highly ordered “bumped” metal arrays that are promising for applications, such as for “moth-eye” anti-reflection layers.