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Keywords:

  • energy conversion;
  • energy-storage devices;
  • macroscopy;
  • microscopy;
  • structural engineering

Abstract

For high-performance energy-storage devices, three-dimensional (3D) designs with diverse configurations are demonstrated to provide highly qualified electrodes and efficient device integration. From a microscope to a macroscope view, this review summarizes the recent advances in electrochemically active nanomaterials, novel current collectors, and integrations of the devices in 3D configurations.