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Keywords:

  • Matrix decomposition;
  • NIPALS;
  • Principal component;
  • SIMCA;
  • PLS

Abstract

The Non-linear Iterative Partial Least Squares (NIPALS) algorithm is used in principal component analysis to decompose a data matrix into score vectors and eigenvectors (loading vectors) plus a residual matrix. NIPALS starts with some guessed starting vector. The principal components obtained by NIPALS depends on the starting vector; the first principal component could not always be computed. Wold has suggested a starting vector for NIPALS, but we have found that even if this starting vector is used, the first principal component cannot be obtained in all cases. The reason why such a situation occurs is explained by the power method. A simple modification of the original NIPALS procedure to avoid getting smaller eigenvalues is presented.