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Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer and Triplet Energy Transfer in a Steroid-Linked Norbornadiene–Carbazole Dyad



Bichromophoric compound 3β-((2-(methoxycarbonyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene-3-yl)carboxy)androst-5-en-17β-yl-[2-(N-carbazolyl)acetate] (NBD-S-CZ) was synthesized and its photochemistry was examined by fluorescence quenching, flash photolysis, and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) methods. Fluorescence quenching measurements show that intramolecular electron transfer from the singlet excited state of the carbazole to the norbornadiene group in NBD-S-CZ occurs with an efficiency (ΦSET) of about 14 % and rate constant (kSET) of about 1.6×107 s−1. Phosphorescence and flash photolysis studies reveal that intramolecular triplet energy transfer and electron transfer from the triplet carbazole to the norbornadiene group proceed with an efficiency (ΦTET + ΦTT) of about 52 % and rate constant (kTET + kTT) of about 3.3×105 s−1. Upon selective excitation of the carbazole chromophore, nuclear polarization is detected for protons of the norbornadiene group (emission) and its quadricyclane isomer (enhanced absorption); this suggests that the isomerization of the norbornadiene group to the quadricyclane proceeds by a radical-ion pair recombination mechanism in addition to intramolecular triplet sensitization. The long-distance intramolecular triplet energy transfer and electron transfers starting both from the singlet and triplet excited states are proposed to proceed by a through-bond mechanism.