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Palladium Nanoclusters Supported on Propylurea-Modified Siliceous Mesocellular Foam for Coupling and Hydrogenation Reactions

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Abstract

This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles supported on siliceous mesocellular foam (MCF). Pd nanoparticles of 2–3 nm and 4–6 nm were used in reactions involving molecular hydrogen (such as hydrogenation of double bonds and reductive amination), transfer hydrogenation of ketones and epoxides, and coupling reactions (such as Heck and Suzuki reactions). They successfully catalyzed all these reactions with excellent yield and selectivity. This heterogeneous catalyst was easily recovered by filtration, and recycled several times without any significant loss in activity and selectivity. The palladium leaching in the reactions was determined to be much less than the FDA-approved limit of 5 ppm. Furthermore, the catalyst can be stored and handled under normal atmospheric conditions. This immobilized catalyst allows for ease of recovery/reuse and minimization of waste generation, which are of great interest in the development of green chemical processes.

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