Rhombohedral-calcite and hexagonal-vaterite types of LuBO3:Eu3+ microparticles with various complex self-assembled 3D architectures have been prepared selectively by an efficient surfactant- and template-free hydrothermal process for the first time. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, photoluminescence, and cathodoluminescence spectra as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the samples. The pH, temperature, concentration, solvent, and reaction time have a crucial influence on the phase formation, shape evolution, and microstructure. The reaction mechanism is considered as a dissolution/precipitation process; it is proposed that the self-assembly evolution occurs by homocentric layer-by-layer growth. Under UV excitation and low-voltage electron beam excitation, calcite-type LuBO3:Eu3+ particles show a strong orange emission corresponding to the 5D0→7F1 transition of Eu3+ whereas vaterite-type LuBO3:Eu3+ particles exhibit a strong red emission with much higher R/O values (that is, chromatically redder fluorescence than that of crystals grown from a direct solid-state reaction). The tunable luminescent properties have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays.