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Rapid and Direct Conversion of Graphite Crystals into High-Yielding, Good-Quality Graphene by Supercritical Fluid Exfoliation

Authors

  • Dinesh Rangappa Dr.,

    1. Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan), Fax: (+81)29-861-5799
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  • Koji Sone Dr.,

    1. Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan), Fax: (+81)29-861-5799
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  • Mingsheng Wang Dr.,

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044 (Japan)
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  • Ujjal K. Gautam Dr.,

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044 (Japan)
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  • Dmitri Golberg Prof.,

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044 (Japan)
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  • Hiroshi Itoh Dr.,

    1. Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
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  • Masaki Ichihara Dr.,

    1. Material Design & Characterization Lab, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)
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  • Itaru Honma Prof.

    1. Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan), Fax: (+81)29-861-5799
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Abstract

Graphene has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years due to its unusual electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. Exploiting graphene properties in a variety of applications requires a chemical approach for the large-scale production of high-quality, processable graphene sheets (GS), which has remained an unanswered challenge. Herein, we report a rapid one-pot supercritical fluid (SCF) exfoliation process for the production of high-quality, large-scale, and processable graphene for technological applications. Direct high-yield conversion of graphite crystals to GS is possible under SCF conditions because of the high diffusivity and solvating power of SCFs, such as ethanol, N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP), and DMF. For the first time, we report a one-pot direct conversion of graphite crystals to a high yield of graphene sheets in which about 90–95 % of the exfoliated sheets are <8 layers with approximately 6–10 % monolayers and the remaining 5–10 % are ≥10 layers.

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