A simple protocol to create nanofibers and -rings through a rational self-assembly approach is described. Whereas the melamine–oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) conjugate 1 a self-aggregates to form ill-defined nanostructures, conjugate 1 b, which possesses an amide group as an additional interactive site, self-aggregates to form 1D nanofibers that induce gelation of the solvent. AFM and XRD studies have shown that dimerization through the melamine–melamine hydrogen-bonding interaction occurs only for 1 b. Upon complexation with 1/3 equivalents of cyanuric acid (CA), conjugate 1 a provides well-defined, ring-shaped nanostructures at micromolar concentrations, which open to form fibrous assemblies at submillimolar concentrations and organogels in the millimolar concentration range. Apparently, the enhanced aggregation ability of 1 a by CA is a consequence of columnar organization of the resulting discotic complex 1 a3⋅CA. In contrast, coaggregation of 1 b with CA does not provide well-defined nanostructures, probably due to the interference of complementary hydrogen-bonding interactions by the amide group.