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Keywords:

  • diabetes;
  • fluorescence spectroscopy;
  • high-throughput screening;
  • lanthanides;
  • luminescence;
  • proteases

Abstract

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically throughout the world. Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified as a potential antidiabetes target. Many DPP4 inhibitors, such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin, have been developed and marketed, but superior therapeutic agents are still required. Therefore, we have developed new methodology for screening of DPP4 inhibitors. Absorption-based measurements with para-nitroaniline or fluorescence-based measurements with the coumarin derivative 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin are often used for the screening of protease inhibitors, including DPP4 inhibitors, but these strategies are not sufficiently sensitive because of interfering background absorption and fluorescence, thus giving rise to many false-positive and false-negative results. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel DPP4 probe (Gly-Pro-BCD-Tb; Gly=glycine, Pro=proline, andBCD defines the backbone of the probe comprising an aniline derivative as on/off switch, a 7-amino-4-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone (cs-124) as antenna moiety, and a diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as chelator moiety, Tb=terbium) for time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements. TRF measurements with Gly-Pro-BCD-Tb showed high sensitivity and reliability in the inhibitory assay relative to Gly-Pro-MCA (MCA=4-methylcoumarin-7-amide), a conventional fluorescence probe for DPP4. Further, we employed our probe for high-throughput DPP4 inhibitor screening with 3841 randomly selected compounds and found that epibestatin, an epimer of bestatin (a well-known anticancer drug and general aminopeptidase inhibitor), showed dose-dependent DPP4 inhibitory activity. Interestingly, bestatin did not exhibit DPP4 inhibitory activity. We believe that this screening system will be useful for the discovery of DPP4 inhibitors with novel structural scaffolds.