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Kinetics from Indirectly Detected Hyperpolarized NMR Spectroscopy by Using Spatially Selective Coherence Transfers



An important recent development in NMR spectroscopy is the advent of ex situ dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) approaches, which are capable of yielding liquid-state sensitivities that exceed considerably those afforded by the highest-field spectrometers. This increase in sensitivity has triggered new research avenues, particularly concerning the in vivo monitoring of metabolism and disease by NMR spectroscopy. So far such gains have mainly materialized for experiments that focus on nonprotonated, low-γ nuclei; targets favored by relatively long relaxation times T1, which enable them to withstand the transfer from the cryogenic hyperpolarizer to the reacting centers of interest. Recent studies have also shown that transferring this hyperpolarization to protons by indirectly detected methods could successfully give rise to 1H NMR spectra of hyperpolarized compounds with a high sensitivity. The present study demonstrates that, when merged with spatially encoded methods, indirectly detected 1H NMR spectroscopy can also be exploited as time-resolved hyperpolarized spectroscopy. A methodology is thus introduced that can successfully deliver a series of hyperpolarized 1H NMR spectra over a minutes-long timescale. The principles and opportunities presented by this approach are exemplified by following the in vitro phosphorylation of choline by choline kinase, a potential metabolic marker of cancer; and by tracking acetylcholine’s hydrolysis by acetylcholine esterase, an important enzyme partaking in synaptic transmission and neuronal degradation.