Get access

A Multistate Switchable [3]Rotacatenane



Rotacatenanes are exotic molecular compounds that can be visualized as a unique combination of a [2]catenane and a [2]rotaxane, thereby combining both the circumrotation of the ring component (rotary motion) and the shuttling of the dumbbell component (translational motion) in one structure. Herein, we describe a strategy for the synthesis of a new switchable [3]rotacatenane and the investigation of its switching properties, which rely on the formation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) radical π-dimer interactions—namely, the mixed-valence state (TTF2)+. and the radical-cation dimer state (TTF+.)2—under ambient conditions. A template-directed approach, based on donor–acceptor interactions, has been developed, resulting in an improved yield of the key precursor [2]catenane, prior to rotacatenation. The nature of the binding between the [2]catenane and selected π-electron-rich templates has been elucidated by using X-ray crystallography and UV/Vis spectroscopy as well as isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The multistate switching mechanism of the [3]rotacatenane has been demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and EPR spectroscopy. Most notably, the radical-cation dimer state (TTF+.)2 has been shown to enter into an equilibrium by forming the co-conformation in which the two 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) units co-occupy the cavity of tetracationic cyclophane, thus enforcing the separation of TTF radical-cation dimer (TTF+.)2. The population ratio of this equilibrium state was found to be 1:1. We believe that this research demonstrates the power of constructing complex molecular machines using template-directed protocols, enabling us to make the transition from simple molecular switches to their multistate variants for enhancing information storage in molecular electronic devices.

Get access to the full text of this article