Poly(triazine imide) with Intercalation of Lithium and Chloride Ions [(C3N3)2(NHxLi1−x)3⋅LiCl]: A Crystalline 2D Carbon Nitride Network

Authors

  • Eva Wirnhier,

    1. Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Festkörperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Butenandtstrasse 5–13 (D), 81377 München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-2180-77440
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Dr. Markus Döblinger,

    1. Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Festkörperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Butenandtstrasse 5–13 (D), 81377 München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-2180-77440
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Daniel Gunzelmann,

    1. Anorganische Chemie I, Universität Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Prof. Dr. Jürgen Senker,

    1. Anorganische Chemie I, Universität Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Prof. Dr. Bettina V. Lotsch,

    1. Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Festkörperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Butenandtstrasse 5–13 (D), 81377 München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-2180-77440
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schnick

    Corresponding author
    1. Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Festkörperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Butenandtstrasse 5–13 (D), 81377 München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-2180-77440
    • Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Anorganische Festkörperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Butenandtstrasse 5–13 (D), 81377 München (Germany), Fax: (+49) 89-2180-77440
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Poly(triazine imide) with intercalation of lithium and chloride ions (PTI/Li+Cl) was synthesized by temperature-induced condensation of dicyandiamide in a eutectic mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride as solvent. By using this ionothermal approach the well-known problem of insufficient crystallinity of carbon nitride (CN) condensation products could be overcome. The structural characterization of PTI/Li+Cl resulted from a complementary approach using spectroscopic methods as well as different diffraction techniques. Due to the high crystallinity of PTI/Li+Cl a structure solution from both powder X-ray and electron diffraction patterns using direct methods was possible; this yielded a triazine-based structure model, in contrast to the proposed fully condensed heptazine-based structure that has been reported recently. Further information from solid-state NMR and FTIR spectroscopy as well as high-resolution TEM investigations was used for Rietveld refinement with a goodness-of-fit (χ2) of 5.035 and wRp=0.05937. PTI/Li+Cl (P63cm (no. 185); a=846.82(10), c=675.02(9) pm) is a 2D network composed of essentially planar layers made up from imide-bridged triazine units. Voids in these layers are stacked upon each other forming channels running parallel to [001], filled with Li+ and Cl ions. The presence of salt ions in the nanocrystallites as well as the existence of sp2-hybridized carbon and nitrogen atoms typical of graphitic structures was confirmed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy investigations using 15N-labeled PTI/Li+Cl proved the absence of heptazine building blocks and NH2 groups and corroborated the highly condensed, triazine-based structure model.

Ancillary