• bascitiy/acidity;
  • disproportionation;
  • gold–palladium nanoparticles;
  • oxidation;
  • support effect


In the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using supported gold–palladium nanoparticles as catalysts, two pathways have been identified as the sources of the principal product, benzaldehyde. One is the direct catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by O2, whereas the second is the disproportionation of two molecules of benzyl alcohol to give equal amounts of benzaldehyde and toluene. Herein we report that by changing the metal oxide used to support the metal–nanoparticles catalyst from titania or niobium oxide to magnesium oxide or zinc oxide, it is possible to switch off the disproportionation reaction and thereby completely stop the toluene formation. It has been observed that the presence of O2 increases the turnover number of this disproportionation reaction as compared to reactions in a helium atmosphere, implying that there are two catalytic pathways leading to toluene.