Observation and Mechanistic Study of Facile C[BOND]O Bond Formation between a Well-Defined Aryl–Copper(III) Complex and Oxygen Nucleophiles

Authors

  • Dr. Lauren M. Huffman,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53704 (USA), Fax: (+1) 608-262-6143
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    • Contributed equally to this work.

  • Alicia Casitas,

    1. QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
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    • Contributed equally to this work.

  • Marc Font,

    1. QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
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  • Mercè Canta,

    1. QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
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  • Dr. Miquel Costas,

    1. QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
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  • Dr. Xavi Ribas,

    Corresponding author
    1. QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
    • QBIS group, Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Fax: (+34) 972-41-81-50
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  • Prof. Dr. Shannon S. Stahl

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53704 (USA), Fax: (+1) 608-262-6143
    • Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53704 (USA), Fax: (+1) 608-262-6143
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Abstract

A well-defined macrocyclic aryl–CuIII complex (2) reacts readily with a variety of oxygen nucleophiles, including carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols, under mild conditions to form the corresponding aryl esters, biaryl ethers and alkyl aryl ethers. The relationship between these reactions and catalytic C[BOND]O coupling methods is demonstrated by the reaction of the macrocyclic aryl–Br species with acetic acid and p-fluorophenol in the presence of 10 mol % CuI. An aryl-CuIII-Br species 2Br was observed as an intermediate in the catalytic reaction. Investigation of the stoichiometric C[BOND]O bond-forming reactions revealed nucleophile-dependent changes in the mechanism. The reaction of 2 with carboxylic acids revealed a positive correlation between the log(kobs) and the pKa of the nucleophile (less-acidic nucleophiles react more rapidly), whereas a negative correlation was observed with most phenols (more-acidic phenols react more rapidly). The latter trend resembles previous observations with nitrogen nucleophiles. With carboxylic acids and acidic phenols, UV-visible spectroscopic data support the formation of a ground-state adduct between 2 and the oxygen nucleophile. Collectively, kinetic and spectroscopic data support a unified mechanism for aryl-O coupling from the CuIII complex, consisting of nucleophile coordination to the CuIII center, deprotonation of the coordinated nucleophile, and C[BOND]O (or C[BOND]N) reductive elimination from CuIII.

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