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Small Pd Nanoparticles Supported in Large Pores of Mesocellular Foam: An Excellent Catalyst for Racemization of Amines

Authors

  • Dr. Mozaffar Shakeri,

    1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)
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  • Dr. Cheuk-wai Tai,

    1. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
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  • Dr. Emmanuelle Göthelid,

    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)
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  • Prof. Sven Oscarsson,

    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)
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  • Prof. Jan-E. Bäckvall

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)
    • Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)
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Abstract

Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (1–2 nm) supported in large-pore mesocellular foam (MCF; 29 nm) were synthesized. The Pd-nanocatalyst/MCF system was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The performance of the Pd nanocatalyst obtained was examined for amine racemization. The Pd nanocatalyst showed higher activity and selectivity toward racemization of (S)-1-phenylethyl amine than any other amine racemization catalyst reported so far and it could be reused several times. Our data from TEM and XRD suggest a restructuring of the Pd nanocatalyst from amorphous to crystalline and an increase in Pd nanocatalyst size during the racemization reaction. This led to an unexpected increase of activity after the first use. The Pd nanocatalyst obtained can be integrated with other resolving processes of racemic organic compounds to increase the yield of chiral organic products.

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