Selective Two-Step Labeling of Proteins with an Off/On Fluorescent Probe

Authors

  • Kazuhisa Hirabayashi,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
    2. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)
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  • Dr. Kenjiro Hanaoka,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
    2. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)
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  • Dr. Manabu Shimonishi,

    1. Global COE, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
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  • Takuya Terai,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
    2. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)
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  • Dr. Toru Komatsu,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
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  • Dr. Tasuku Ueno,

    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
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  • Prof. Dr. Tetsuo Nagano

    Corresponding author
    1. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
    2. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3–5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)
    • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 3-5841-4855
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Abstract

We present a novel design strategy for off/on fluorescent probes suitable for selective two-step labeling of proteins. To validate this strategy, we designed and synthesized an off/on fluorescent probe, 1–Ni2+, which targets a cysteine-modified hexahistidine (His) tag. The probe consists of dichlorofluorescein conjugated with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-Ni2+ as the His-tag recognition site and a 2,4-dinitrophenyl ether moiety, which quenches the probe’s fluorescence by photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from the excited fluorophore to the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ether (donor-excited PeT; d-PeT) and also has reactivity with cysteine. His-tag recognition by the NTA–Ni2+ moiety is followed by removal of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ether quencher by proximity-enhanced reaction with the cysteine residue of the modified tag; this results in a marked fluorescence increase. Addition of His-tag peptide bearing a cysteine residue to aqueous probe solution resulted in about 20-fold fluorescence increment within 10 min, which is the largest fluorescence enhancement so far obtained with a visible light-excitable fluorescent probe for a His-based peptide tag. Further, we successfully visualized CysHis6-peptide tethered to microbeads without any washing step. The probe also showed a large fluorescence increment in the presence of His6Cys-tagged enhanced blue fluorescent protein (EBFP), but not His6-tagged EBFP. We consider this system is superior to large fluorescence tags (e.g., green fluorescent protein: 27 kDa), which can perturb protein folding, trafficking and function, and also to existing small tags, which generally show little fluorescence increase upon target recognition and therefore require a washout step. This strategy should also be applicable to other tags.

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