The Importance of Stereochemically Active Lone Pairs For Influencing PbII and AsIII Protein Binding

Authors

  • Dr. Giuseppe Zampella,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milano (Italy), Tel: (+39) 02-64483416, Fax: (+39) 02-64483478 address:
    • Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milano (Italy), Tel: (+39) 02-64483416, Fax: (+39) 02-64483478 address:
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  • Dr. Kosh P. Neupane,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (USA), Tel.: (+1) 734-763-1519, Fax: (+1) 734-936-7628 address:
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  • Dr. Luca De Gioia,

    1. Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milano (Italy), Tel: (+39) 02-64483416, Fax: (+39) 02-64483478 address:
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  • Prof. Dr. Vincent L. Pecoraro

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (USA), Tel.: (+1) 734-763-1519, Fax: (+1) 734-936-7628 address:
    • Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (USA), Tel.: (+1) 734-763-1519, Fax: (+1) 734-936-7628 address:
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Abstract

The toxicity of heavy metals, which is associated with the high affinity of the metals for thiolate rich proteins, constitutes a problem worldwide. However, despite this tremendous toxicity concern, the binding mode of AsIII and PbII to proteins is poorly understood. To clarify the requirements for toxic metal binding to metalloregulatory sensor proteins such as AsIII in ArsR/ArsD and PbII in PbrR or replacing ZnII in δ-aminolevulinc acid dehydratase (ALAD), we have employed computational and experimental methods examining the binding of these heavy metals to designed peptide models. The computational results show that the mode of coordination of AsIII and PbII is greatly influenced by the steric bulk within the second coordination environment of the metal. The proposed basis of this selectivity is the large size of the ion and, most important, the influence of the stereochemically active lone pair in hemidirected complexes of the metal ion as being crucial. The experimental data show that switching a bulky leucine layer above the metal binding site by a smaller alanine residue enhances the PbII binding affinity by a factor of five, thus supporting experimentally the hypothesis of lone pair steric hindrance. These complementary approaches demonstrate the potential importance of a stereochemically active lone pair as a metal recognition mode in proteins and, specifically, how the second coordination sphere environment affects the affinity and selectivity of protein targets by certain toxic ions.

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