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Site-Selected Doping of Upconversion Luminescent Er3+ into SrTiO3 for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic H2 or O2 Evolution

Authors

  • Jinwen Shi,

    1. International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 29-8266-9033
    2. Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 29-859-2301
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  • Prof. Dr. Jinhua Ye,

    Corresponding author
    1. Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 29-859-2301
    • Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 29-859-2301
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  • Lijing Ma,

    1. International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 29-8266-9033
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  • Dr. Shuxin Ouyang,

    1. Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan), Fax: (+81) 29-859-2301
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  • Dr. Dengwei Jing,

    1. International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 29-8266-9033
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  • Prof. Dr. Liejin Guo

    Corresponding author
    1. International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 29-8266-9033
    • International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 29-8266-9033
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Abstract

A series of upconversion luminescent erbium-doped SrTiO3 (ABO3-type) photocatalysts with different initial molar ratios of Sr/Ti have been prepared by a facile polymerized complex method. Er3+ ions, which were gradually transferred from the A to the B site with increasing Sr/Ti, enabled the absorption of visible light and the generation of high-energy excited states populated by upconversion processes. The local internal fields arising from the dipole moments of the distorted BO6 octahedra promoted energy transfer from the high-energy excited states of Er3+ with B-site occupancy to the host SrTiO3 and thus enhanced the band-to-band transition of the host SrTiO3. Consequently, the erbium-doped SrTiO3 species with B-site occupancy showed higher photocatalytic activity than those with A-site occupancy for visible-light-driven H2 or O2 evolution in the presence of the corresponding sacrificial reagents. The results generally suggest that the introduction of upconversion luminescent agents into host semiconductors is a promising approach to simultaneously harnessing low-energy photons and maintaining redox ability for photocatalytic H2 and O2 evolution and that the site occupancy of doped elements in ABO3-type perovskite oxides greatly determines the photocatalytic activity.

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