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Keywords:

  • benzene;
  • cations;
  • crystal structures;
  • Jahn–Teller distortion;
  • X-ray diffraction

Abstract

The halogenated benzenes C6HF5, 2,4,6-C6H3F3, 2,3,5,6-C6H2F4, C6F6, C6Cl6, C6Br6, and C6I6 were converted into their corresponding cation radicals by using various strong oxidants. The cation-radical salts were isolated and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the cation radicals increased with decreasing hydrogen content. As expected, the cation radicals [C6HF5]+ and 2,3,5,6-[C6H2F4]+ had structures with the same geometry as C6HF5 and 2,3,5,6-[C6H2F4]. In contrast, the cation radicals [C6F6]+, [C6Cl6]+, and possibly also [C6Br6]+ exhibited Jahn–Teller-distorted geometries in the crystalline state. In the case of C6F6+Sb2F11, two low-symmetry geometries were observed in the same crystal. Interestingly, the structures of the cation radicals 2,4,6-[C6H3F3]+ and C6I6+ did not exhibit Jahn–Teller distortions. DFT calculations showed that the explanation for the lack of distortion of these cations from the D3h or D6h symmetry of the neutral benzene precursor was different for 2,4,6-[C6H3F3]+ than for [C6I6]+.