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Detection of Nickel in Fish Organs with a Two-Photon Fluorescent Probe

Authors

  • Min Young Kang,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 2-3290-3544
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    • These two authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Chang Su Lim,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 2-3290-3544
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    • These two authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Hyun Soo Kim,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 2-3290-3544
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  • Eun Won Seo,

    1. Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon, 443-749 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 31-219-1615
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  • Prof. Dr. Hwan Myung Kim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon, 443-749 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 31-219-1615
    • Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon, 443-749 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 31-219-1615
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  • Dr. Ohyun Kwon,

    Corresponding author
    1. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea), Fax: (+82) 32-3210-3222
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea), Fax: (+82) 32-3210-3222
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  • Prof. Dr. Bong Rae Cho

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 2-3290-3544
    • Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea), Fax: (+82) 2-3290-3544
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Abstract

Molecular imaging by two-photon microscopy (TPM) has become indispensable to the study of biology/medicine owing to its capability of imaging deep inside intact tissues. To make TPM a more-versatile tool, a large variety of two-photon probes are needed. Herein, we report a new two-photon fluorescent probe (ANi2) that can be excited by 750 nm femtosecond pulses and detect Ni2+ ions in fresh fish organs at 90–175 μm depth without interference from the pH value or from other biologically relevant species through the use of TPM. TPM images of fish organs labeled with ANi2 revealed that Ni2+ ions accumulate in fish organs in the order: kidney > heart > gill ≥ liver. Moreover, a linear relationship was found between the two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry intensities (ICP-MS), thereby allowing the quantitative measurement of Ni2+ ions in live tissue.

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