Electrochemical polymerization of a series of N-alkyl-2,7-di(2-thienyl)carbazoles in acetonitrile was performed to obtain conjugated polymers with fluorescence. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies revealed that the surface morphology of the polymer films significantly depends on the alkyl chain lengths of the polymers. Particularly, a homopolymer bearing hexyl groups and copolymers with an average alkyl chain length of six carbon atoms show nanofiber morphology. The polymer nanofibers were stacked on a substrate electrode. The fluorescence of the polymer nanofiber film was tunable with application of voltage, with good repeatability. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the fibers showed the structural order. The polymer nanofibers thus prepared showed an electrochemically driven change in polarized photoluminescence.