A procedure for the synthesis of fluorinated imidazole derivatives from propargyl amidines has been developed. Under gold(I) catalysis, propargyl amidines were converted into 5-fluoromethyl imidazoles in the presence of Selectfluor through a cascade cyclization/fluorination process. In contrast, imidazole-5-carbaldehydes were obtained in high yields when N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) was used as the halogenating reagent. The polarity of the solvent and light had significant impact on the formation of the carbaldehydes. These transformations showed excellent functional-group tolerance. An unfluorinated substrate with an electron-withdrawing group also underwent aminohalogenation to give the corresponding product in good yield. Mechanistic investigation revealed the general pathways of these transformations.