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Quantum-Chemical and Electrochemical Investigation of the Electrochemical Windows of Halogenated Carborate Anions

Authors

  • Prof. Dr. René T. Boeré,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1 K 3 M4 (Canada)
    • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1 K 3 M4 (Canada)
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  • Christoph Bolli,

    1. Fachbereich C - Anorganische Chemie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstrasse 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany), Fax: (+49) 202-439-3503
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  • Prof. Dr. Maik Finze,

    1. Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)
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  • Dr. Alexander Himmelspach,

    1. Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)
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  • Prof. Dr. Carsten Knapp,

    Corresponding author
    1. Fachbereich C - Anorganische Chemie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstrasse 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany), Fax: (+49) 202-439-3503
    • Fachbereich C - Anorganische Chemie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstrasse 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany), Fax: (+49) 202-439-3503
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  • Dr. Tracey L. Roemmele

    1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1 K 3 M4 (Canada)
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Abstract

The range of electrochemical stability of a series of weakly coordinating halogenated (Hal=F, Cl, Br, I) 1-carba-closo-dodecaborate anions, [1-R-CB11X5Y6] (R=H, Me; X=H, Hal, Me; Y=Hal), has been established by using quantum chemical calculations and electrochemical methods. The structures of the neutral and dianionic radicals, as well as the anions, have been optimized by using DFT calculations at the PBE0/def2-TZVPP level. The calculated structures are in good agreement with existing experimental data and with previous calculations. Their gas-phase ionization energies and electron affinities were calculated based on their optimized structures and were compared with experimental (cyclic and square-wave) voltammetry data. Electrochemical oxidation was performed in MeCN at room temperature and in liquid sulfur dioxide at lower temperatures. All of the anions show a very high resistance to the onset of oxidation (2.15–2.85 V versus Fc0/+), with only a minor dependence of the oxidation potential on the different halogen substituents. In contrast, the reduction potentials in MeCN are strongly substituent dependent (−1.93 to −3.32 V versus Fc0/+). The calculated ionization energies and electron affinities correlate well with the experimental redox potentials, which provide important verification of the thermodynamic validity of the mostly irreversible redox processes that are observed for this series. The large electrochemical windows that are afforded by these anions indicate their suitability for electrochemical applications, for example, as supporting electrolytes.

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