Photoinduced Fluorescence Activation and Nitric Oxide Release with Biocompatible Polymer Nanoparticles

Authors

  • Dr. Erhan Deniz,

    1. Laboratory for Molecular Photonics, Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables FL 33146-0431 (USA), Fax: (+1) 305-284-4571
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  • Noufal Kandoth,

    1. Laboratory of Photochemistry, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy), Fax: (+39) 095-580138
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  • Dr. Aurore Fraix,

    1. Laboratory of Photochemistry, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy), Fax: (+39) 095-580138
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  • Dr. Venera Cardile,

    1. Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Physiology Division, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
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  • Dr. Adriana C. E. Graziano,

    1. Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Physiology Division, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
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  • Dr. Debora Lo Furno,

    1. Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Physiology Division, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
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  • Dr. Ruxandra Gref,

    1. UMR CNRS 8612, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris-Sud University, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clément, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France)
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  • Prof. Françisco M. Raymo,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory for Molecular Photonics, Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables FL 33146-0431 (USA), Fax: (+1) 305-284-4571
    • Laboratory for Molecular Photonics, Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables FL 33146-0431 (USA), Fax: (+1) 305-284-4571
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  • Prof. Salvatore Sortino

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Photochemistry, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy), Fax: (+39) 095-580138
    • Laboratory of Photochemistry, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy), Fax: (+39) 095-580138
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Abstract

A viable strategy to encapsulate a fluorophore/photochrome dyad and a nitric oxide photodonor within supramolecular assemblies of a cyclodextrin-based polymer in water was developed. The two photoresponsive guests do not interact with each other within their supramolecular container and can be operated in parallel under optical control. Specifically, the dyad permits the reversible switching of fluorescence on a microsecond timescale for hundreds of cycles, and the photodonor enables the irreversible release of nitric oxide. Furthermore, these supramolecular assemblies cross the membrane of human melanoma cancer cells and transport their cargo in the cytosol. The fluorescence of one component allows the visualization of the labeled cells, and its switchable character could, in principle, be used to acquire super-resolution images, while the release of nitric oxide from the other induces significant cell mortality. Thus, our design logic for the construction of biocompatible nanoparticles with dual functionality might evolve into the realization of valuable photoresponsive probes for imaging and therapeutic applications.

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