Basic Principles and Current Trends in Colloidal Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Semiconductor Nanocrystals

Authors

  • Dr. Pavel Samokhvalov,

    1. Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation), Fax: (+375) 172-264696
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  • Dr. Mikhail Artemyev,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation), Fax: (+375) 172-264696
    2. Institute for Physico-Chemical Problems of Belarusian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)
    • Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation), Fax: (+375) 172-264696
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  • Prof. Dr. Igor Nabiev

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation), Fax: (+375) 172-264696
    2. European Technological Platform Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, James's Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)
    • Laboratory of Nano-Bioengineering, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation), Fax: (+375) 172-264696
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Abstract

The principal methods for the synthesis of highly luminescent core–shell colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of the most widely used CdSe, CdS, ZnSe, and other AIIBVI nanocrystals are reviewed. One-pot versus multistage core synthesis approaches are discussed. The noninjection one-pot method ensures slow, controllable growth of core nanocrystals starting from magic-size seed recrystallization, which yields defect-free cores with strictly specified sizes and shapes and a high monodispersity. Subsequent injection of shell precursors allows the formation of gradient core–shell QDs with a smooth potential barrier for electrons and holes, without strains or interfacial defects, and, as a consequence, a luminescence quantum yield (QY) approaching 100 %. These general approaches can also be applied to semiconductor core–shell QDs other than AIIBVI ones to cover the broad spectral range from the near-UV to IR regions of the optical spectrum, thus displacing fluorescent organic dyes from their application areas.

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