Evidence for Kinetic Nucleation in Helical Nanofiber Formation Directed by Chiral Solvent for a Perylene Bisimide Organogelator

Authors

  • Dr. Vladimir Stepanenko,

    1. Universität Würzburg, Institut für Organische Chemie and Center for Nanosystems Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany), Fax: (+49) 931-31-84756
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  • Dr. Xue-Qing Li,

    1. Universität Würzburg, Institut für Organische Chemie and Center for Nanosystems Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany), Fax: (+49) 931-31-84756
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  • Jana Gershberg,

    1. Universität Würzburg, Institut für Organische Chemie and Center for Nanosystems Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany), Fax: (+49) 931-31-84756
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  • Prof. Dr. Frank Würthner

    Corresponding author
    1. Universität Würzburg, Institut für Organische Chemie and Center for Nanosystems Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany), Fax: (+49) 931-31-84756
    • Universität Würzburg, Institut für Organische Chemie and Center for Nanosystems Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany), Fax: (+49) 931-31-84756

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Abstract

The self-assembly behavior of an achiral perylene bisimide (PBI) organogelator that bears two 3,4,5-tridodecyloxybenzoylaminoethyl substituents at the imide positions has been investigated in chiral solvents (R)- and (S)-limonene in great detail by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). CD spectroscopic studies on dilute solutions revealed a preferential population of one-handed helical assemblies in chiral solvent with an enantiomeric excess close to 100 %, whereas AFM images of more than 100 nanofibers of the organogel obtained from more concentrated solutions were found to consist of both handed helices with an enantiomeric excess of only 20 %. This discrepancy is attributed to the fast gelation process at high dye concentration that evidently proceeds through non-equilibrated nuclei in a kinetic rather than thermodynamic self-assembly process. Under these conditions the chiral induction from the homochiral solvent may not be adequate in effectively populating only one-handed helices.

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