In this paper, band-structure matching strategy of a TiO2-based heterojunction within which electrons can be collected from TiO2 nanoparticles and transported rapidly in the bulk structure is reported. On the basis of the band-structure analysis of different TiO2-based heterostructures, focus was directed to the SnO2 nanosheet because of its appropriate band position and high electrical conductivity. Through a systematic investigation of the incorporation of ultrathin SnO2 nanosheet scaffolds for TiO2-based photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), we propose an anisotropy “constrained random walk” model to describe the controlled electron transit process. In this system, electrons are transferred orientedly overall, as well as randomly locally, leading to a significant reduction in the charge diffusion route compared to the conventional isotropic “random walk” model. In brief, the 2D ultrathin nanosheets provide rapid transit pathways and improved light-scattering centers, which can ensure a sufficient amount of dye loading and slow recombination. An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency as high as 8.25 % is achieved by embedding the appropriate amount of SnO2 scaffold in a TiO2-based photoanode.
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