Solid-State Phosphorescence of trans-Bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) Complexes Bearing Long Alkyl Chains: Morphology Control towards Intense Emission

Authors

  • Dr. Naruyoshi Komiya,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
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  • Nao Itami,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
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  • Prof. Takeshi Naota

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
    • Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

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Abstract

Morphology control for intense solid-state phosphorescence of non-emissive, but potentially emissive crystals of platinum complexes and the mechanistic rationale are described. A series of trans-bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) complexes bearing linear alkyl chains (1 a: n=5; 1 b: n=8; 1 c: n=12; 1 d: n=14; 1 e: n=16; 1 f: n=18) was synthesized and the solid-state emission properties were examined by using crystals/aggregates prepared under various precipitation conditions. Crystals of 1 e, prepared using “kinetic” conditions including rapid cooling, high concentrations, and poor solvents, emit intensive yellow phosphorescence (λmax=545 nm) under UV irradiation at 298 K with an absolute quantum efficiency of 0.36, whereas all the crystals of 1 a1 f prepared using “thermodynamic” conditions including slow cooling, low concentrations, and good solvents were either non- or less emissive with Φ298K values of 0.12 (1 a), 0.11 (1 b), 0.10 (1 c), 0.07 (1 d), 0.02 (1 e), and 0.02 (1 f) under the same measurement conditions. The amorphous solid 1 e, prepared by rapid cooling and freeze-drying, was also non-emissive (Φ298K=0.02, 0.02). Temperature-dependent emission spectra showed that the kinetic crystals of 1 e exhibit high heat-resistance towards emission decay with increasing temperature, whereas the amorphous solid 1 e is entirely heat-quenchable. This is a rare example of the change from a non-emissive crystal into a highly emissive crystal by morphology control through crystal engineering. Emission spectra and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the emissive, kinetic crystals of 1 e are clearly distinct from those of the less emissive, thermodynamic crystals of 1 a1 f. Single-crystal XRD unequivocally establishes that the thermodynamic crystals of 1 d have a multilayered lamellar structure supported by highly regulated, consecutive π-stacking interactions between imine moieties, whereas the kinetic crystals of 1 e have a face-to-edge lamellar structure with less stacking. These results lead to the conclusion that 1) morphology control of long-chained complexes exclusively generates a metastable herringbone-based lamellar packing motif that exhibits intense emission and high heat-resistance, while 2) a thermodynamically stable, highly regulated, consecutive stacking motif is unfavorable for solid-state emission.

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